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Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Hematology includes the study of etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of blood diseases. The lab work that goes into the study of blood is performed by a Medical Technologist.
Blood diseases affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, the mechanism of coagulation, etc.
Additional recommended knowledge
Hematologists and Hematopathologists
Physicians specialized in hematology are known as hematologists. Their routine work mainly includes the care and treatment of patients with hematological diseases, although some may also work at the hematology laboratory viewing blood films and bone marrow slides under the microscope, interpreting various hematological test results. In some institutions, hematologists also manage the hematology laboratory. Physicians who mainly work in hematology laboratories, and most commonly manage it, are pathologists specialized in the diagnosis of hematological diseases, referred to as hematopathologists. Hematologists and hematopathologists generally work in conjunction to formulate a diagnosis and deliver the most appropriate therapy if needed. Hematology is a distinct subspecialty of internal medicine, separate from but overlapping with the subspecialty of medical oncology. Hematologists may specialise further or have special interests, for example in:
(Hema- comes from the Greek word "`'aima" meaning "blood", -ology means study of.
Common basic clinical hematology tests
In a clinical laboratory the hematology department performs numerous different tests on blood. The most commonly performed test is the complete blood count (CBC) also called full blood count (FBC), which includes; white blood cell count, platelet count, hemoglobin level and several parameters of red blood cells. Coagulation is a sub-speciality of hematology; basic general coagulation tests are the prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT). Another common hematology test in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
In a blood bank the Coombs test is the most commonly performed test.
Hematology as basic medical science
Classification of hematologic diseases
Tests used in the investigation of hematological problems include:
acquired hemolytic anemia: Autoimmune (Warm), HUS, MAHA, PNH, PCHaplastic anemia: Acquired PRCA, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Fanconi anemia • Sideroblastic anemia • Hemochromatosis
|Coagulation/platelets||coagulopathy: DIC • Hemophilia (A/VII, B/IX, C/XI, XIII) • Von Willebrand disease
Purpura: Henoch-Schönlein, ITP (Evans syndrome), TTP
primary hypercoagulable state: Protein C deficiency - Protein S deficiency - Antithrombin III deficiency - Antiphospholipid syndrome - Factor V Leidenother hemorrhagic conditions: Bernard-Soulier syndrome - Glanzmann's thrombasthenia - Grey platelet syndrome
|Histiocytosis||WHO-I Langerhans cell histiocytosis - non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis/WHO-II (Juvenile xanthogranuloma, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis) - malignant histiocytic disorders/WHO-III (Acute monocytic leukemia, Malignant histiocytosis, Erdheim-Chester disease)|
|Other||Asplenia/hyposplenism - Methemoglobinemia|
|General concepts||Apheresis (Plasmapheresis, Plateletpheresis, Leukapheresis) - Blood transfusion - Coombs test - Cross-matching - Exchange transfusion - International Society of Blood Transfusion - Intraoperative blood salvage - ISBT 128 - Transfusion reactions|
|Human blood group systems - Blood type||ABO - Chido-Rodgers - Colton - Cromer - Diego - Dombrock - Duffy - Gerbich - GIL - Hh - Ii - Indian - JMH - Kell (Xk) - Kidd - Knops - Landsteiner-Weiner - Lewis - Lutheran - MNS - OK - P - Raph - Rh - Scianna - T-Tn - Xg - Yt|
|Blood products||Blood donation - Blood substitutes - Cryoprecipitate - Platelets - Plasma - Red blood cells|
Categories: Blood disorders | Hematology