This is a rare disease, with less than 100 cases reported. Of these cases, an equal male:female ratio was observed, with cases typically seen in older adults.
The etiology of CNL is currently unknown. An association between CNL and multiple myeloma has been suggested based on the observation of myeloma in 20% of CNL cases. However, a clonal genetic abnormality has not been detected in these myeloma-associated cases of CNL, raising the possibility that the neutrophilia is a reaction due to the neoplastic myeloma cells. The postulated cell of origin is a limited-potential, marrow-derived stem cell.
The most common clincal finding is hepatosplenomegaly. Pruritus, gout, and mucocutaneous bleeding are occasionally seen.
Peripheral blood neutrophilia (> 25 x 109/L) with myeloid precursors (promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes) comprising less than 5% of leukocytes.
On both the bone marrow aspirate and the core biopsy, a hypercellular marrow with an increased myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20:1 or greater. Myelocytes and neutrophils are increased, and blasts and promyelocytes are not increased. Due to the myeloproliferative nature of the disease, an increase in megakaryocytes and erythroid precursors may be observed, but dyspoiesis in not seen in any cell lineage. Also, reticulin fibrosis is rare. There is a reported association between CNL and multiple myeloma, so the bone marrow biopsy may show evidence of a plasma cell dyscrasia with increased numbers of atypical plasma cells.
Splenic infiltrates are typically found only in the red pulp.
Hepatic infiltrates can be found in either the sinusoids, portal triad regions, or both.
No distinct immunophenotype abnormality for CNL has been described.
^ abcdef  Jaffe E.S., Harris N.L., Stein H., Vardiman J.W. (eds): World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haemopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. IARC Press: Lyon 2001
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