In the United States, there are currently 25 certified specialties with the numerous sub-specialties. The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS); the American Osteopathic Association Board of Specialists (AOABS) and the American Board of Physician Specialists (ABPS) are the three entities that oversee certification.
Allopathic and Osteopathic
There are three agencies or organizations in the United States which collectively oversee physician board certification of allopathic and osteopathic physicians in the 26 approved medical specialties recognized in the United States. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association; the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABS) and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician Specialists. Each of these agencies and their associated national medical organization functions as an umbrella for its various specialty academies, colleges and societies:
Allopathic and Osteopathic
All boards of certification now require that physicians demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for their chosen specialty. Recertification varies by specialty between every 7 and every 10 years.
In this table, medical specialities are organized into the following groups:
(or otorhinolaryngology or ENT/ear-nose-throat) is concerned with treatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty which is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.
includes aesthetic surgery (operations that are done for other than medical purposes) as well as reconstructive surgery (operations to restore function and/or appearance after traumatic or operative mutilation).
traditionally defined as the specialty of surgery of the skin, endocrine glands, and abdomen (and, sometimes, the mammary glands). In some countries, it is still deemed a prerequisite training prior to progression to training in certain subspecialties, but lately has evolved into its own subspecialty
specializes in disorders of the cardiovascular system and its diseases. The field is commonly divided into subdisciplines dealing with congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology.
or intensive care medicine - concerned with the therapy of patients with serious and life-threatening disease or injury. Intensive care medicine employs invasive diagnostic techniques and (temporary) replacement of organ functions by technical means. This field is often associated with Pulmonology.
Clinical immunology is concerned with disorders of the immune system and related body defenses. It also deals with diagnosis of allergy.
the clinical diagnostic services which apply laboratory techniques to diagnosis and management of patients. In the United States these services are supervised by a pathologist. The personnel that work in these medical laboratory departments are technically trained staff, each of whom usually hold a medical technology degree, who actually perform the tests, assays, and procedures needed for providing the specific services.
chest medicine, respiratory medicine, or lung medicine is concerned with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory system. In some countries and areas. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.
Interventional radiology is concerned with using imaging of the human body, usually from CT, ultrasound, or fluoroscopy, to do biopsies, place certain tubes, and perform intravascular procedures.
Nuclear Medicine uses radioactive substances for in vivo and in vitro diagnosis using either imaging of the location of radioactive substances placed into a patient, or using in vitro diagnostic tests utilizing radioactive substances.
branch of medical practice dealing with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain etc.
the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of molecules, cells, tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty which uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information, as well as the related scientific study of disease processes.
Like internal medicine, there are many pediatric subspecialities for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most subspecialities of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, pediatric oncology, pediatric ophthalmology, and neonatology.
deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country).
concerned with testing the physiology or function of the central and peripheral aspects of the nervous system. These kinds of tests can be divided into recordings of: (1) spontaneous or continuously running electrical activity, or (2) stimulus evoked responses.
Child and adolescent psychiatry focuses on the care of children and adolescents with mental, emotional, and learning problems including ADHD, autism, and family conflicts.
Geriatric psychiatry focuses on the care of elderly people with mental illnesses including dementias, post-stroke cognitive changes, and depression.
Addiction psychiatry focuses on substance abuse and its treatment.
Forensic psychiatry focuses on the interface of psychiatry and law.
the branch of medicine concerned with the bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral disorders. Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
In the U.S. Army, the term "medical specialist" refers to occupational therapists, physical therapists, dietitians and physician assistants, also known as allied health professionals.
Interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine, including e.g.
Occupational medicine - branch of clinical medicine which provides health advice to organizations and individuals concerning work-related health and safety issues and standards. See occupational safety and health.
Disaster medicine - branch of medicine that provides healthcare services to disaster survivors; guides medically related disaster preparation, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery throughout the disaster life cycle andserves as a liaison between and partner to the medical contingency planner, the emergency management professional, the incident command system, government and policy makers.
Preventive medicine- part of medicine engaged with preventing disease rather than curing it. It can be contrasted not only with curative medicine, but also with public health methods (which work at the level of population health rather than individual health).
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