Peliosis hepatis is often erroneously written "peliosis hepatitis", despite its not being one of the hepatitides. The correct term arises from the Greek pelios, i.e. discoloured by extravasated blood, livid, and the Latinized Genitive case (hepatis) of the Greek hepar, liver.
The pathogenesis of peliosis hepatis is unknown. There are several hypotheses, such as, it arise from sinusoidal epithelial damage, increased sinusoidal pressure due to obstruction in blood outflow from the live, or hepatocellular necrosis.
Two morphologic patterns of hepatic peliosis were described by Yanoff and Rawson . In the phlebectatic type, the blood-filled spaces are lined with endothelium and are associated with aneurismal dilatation of the central vein; in the parenchymal type, the spaces have no endothelial lining and they usually are associated with haemorrhagic parenchymal necrosis. Some considers both pattern to be one process, initiated by focal necrosis of liver parenchyma observed in parenchymal type progressing into formation of fibrous wall and endothelial lining around haemorrhage of phebectatic type. Fibrosis, cirrhosis, regenerative nodules, and tumours may also be seen.
Infections:HIV, Bacillary peliosis (caused by genus Bartonella, bacteria responsible for cat-scratch disease which are identified histologically adjacent to the peliotic lesions), Staphylococcus aureus
Usually directed towards management of underlying cause. Withdrawal of azathioprine leads to remission in renal transplant, bacillary peliosis responds to antibiotics. In rare circumstances partial resection of liver or transplant may be required.
^ ab Sleisenger, Marvin (2006). Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 1416002456. Chapter 80
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^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
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^ Haboubi NY, Ali HH, Whitwell HL, Ackrill P (1988). "Role of endothelial cell injury in the spectrum of azathioprine-induced liver disease after renal transplant: light microscopy and ultrastructural observations". Am. J. Gastroenterol.83 (3): 256-61. PMID 3278593.
^ Izumi S, Nishiuchi M, Kameda Y, Nagano S, Fukunishi T, Kohro T, Shinji Y (1994). "Laparoscopic study of peliosis hepatis and nodular transformation of the liver before and after renal transplantation: natural history and aetiology in follow-up cases". J. Hepatol.20 (1): 129-37. PMID 8201214.
^ Cavalcanti R, Pol S, Carnot F, Campos H, Degott C, Driss F, Legendre C, Kreis H (1994). "Impact and evolution of peliosis hepatis in renal transplant recipients". Transplantation58 (3): 315-6. PMID 8053054.
^ Goldman, Lee (2003). Cecil Textbook of Medicine -- 2-Volume Set, Text with Continually Updated Online Reference. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0721645631.