Classification & external resources
Liver failure is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology. Two forms are recognised:
- Acute liver failure - development of hepatic encephalopathy (confusion, stupor and coma) and decreased production of proteins (such as albumin and blood clotting proteins) within four weeks of the first symptoms (such as jaundice) of a liver problem. "Hyperacute" liver failure is said to be present if this interval is 7 days or less, while "subacute" liver failure is said to be present if the interval is 5-12 weeks.
- Chronic liver failure usually occurs in the context of cirrhosis, itself potentially the result of many possible causes, such as excessive alcohol intake, hepatitis B or C, autoimmune, hereditary and metabolic causes.
Additional recommended knowledge
- ^ O'Grady JG, Schalm SW, Williams R. Acute liver failure: redefining the syndromes. Lancet 1993;342:273-5. PMID 8101303.
|Digestive system - Gastroenterology (primarily K20-K93, 530-579)|
|Esophagus||Esophagitis - GERD - Achalasia - Boerhaave syndrome - Nutcracker esophagus - Zenker's diverticulum - Mallory-Weiss syndrome - Barrett's esophagus|
|Peptic (gastric/duodenal) ulcer - Gastritis - Gastroenteritis - Duodenitis - Dyspepsia - Pyloric stenosis - Achlorhydria - Gastroparesis - Gastroptosis - Portal hypertensive gastropathy|
|Hernia||Inguinal (Indirect, Direct) - Femoral - Umbilical - Incisional - Diaphragmatic - Hiatus|
|Noninfective enteritis and colitis||IBD (Crohn's, Ulcerative colitis) - noninfective gastroenteritis|
|Other intestinal||vascular (Abdominal angina, Mesenteric ischemia, Ischemic colitis, Angiodysplasia) - Ileus/Bowel obstruction (Intussusception, Volvulus) - Diverticulitis/Diverticulosis - IBS|
other functional intestinal disorders (Constipation, Diarrhea, Megacolon/Toxic megacolon, Proctalgia fugax) - Anal fissure/Anal fistula - Anal abscess - Rectal prolapse - Proctitis (Radiation proctitis)
|Liver/hepatitis||Alcoholic liver disease - Liver failure (Acute liver failure) - Cirrhosis - PBC - NASH - Fatty liver - Peliosis hepatis - Portal hypertension - Hepatorenal syndrome|
|Accessory digestive||Gallbladder (Gallstones, Choledocholithiasis, Cholecystitis, Cholesterolosis, Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses)
Biliary tree (Cholangitis, Cholestasis/Mirizzi's syndrome, PSC, Biliary fistula, Ascending cholangitis)
Pancreas (Acute pancreatitis, Chronic pancreatitis, Pancreatic pseudocyst, Hereditary pancreatitis)
|Other/general||Appendicitis - Peritonitis (Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis)
Malabsorption (celiac, Tropical sprue, Blind loop syndrome, Whipple's)
postprocedural: Gastric dumping syndrome - Postcholecystectomy syndrome
bleeding: Hematemesis - Melena - Gastrointestinal bleeding (Upper, Lower)
|See also congenital|