Symptom/ Sign: Hepatomegaly Classifications and external resources
Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver. It is a nonspecific medical sign having many causes, which can broadly be broken down into infection, direct toxicity, hepatic tumours, or metabolic disorder. Often, hepatomegaly will present as an abdominal mass. Depending on the cause, it may sometimes present along with jaundice.
Additional recommended knowledge
After a thorough medical history and
physical examination, blood tests should be drawn. An important series of blood tests are the liver function tests, which give a good impression of the patient's broad metabolic picture.
ultrasound of the liver can reliably detect a dilated biliary duct system, which helps distinguish parenchymal liver disease from extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Ultrasound can also detect the characteristic texture of a cirrhotic liver, and can guide fine needle aspiration of cysts, abscesses and tumours.
Computed tomography (CT) can help obtain more accurate anatomical information, and is unaffected by the obesity or the presence of bowel gases.
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Drugs and Toxins
Symptoms and signs (R00-R69, 780-789) Circulatory and respiratory systems Tachycardia - Bradycardia - Palpitation - Heart murmur - Epistaxis - Hemoptysis - Cough - abnormalities of breathing ( Dyspnea, Orthopnoea, Stridor, Wheeze, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, Hyperventilation, Mouth breathing, Hiccup, Bradypnea, Hypoventilation) - Chest pain - Asphyxia - Pleurisy - Respiratory arrest - Sputum - Bruit/Carotid bruit - Rales Digestive system and abdomen Abdominal pain ( Acute abdomen) - Nausea/ Vomiting - Heartburn - Dysphagia - flatulence and related ( Abdominal distension, Bloating, Burping, Tympanites) - Fecal incontinence ( Encopresis) - hepatosplenomegaly ( Hepatomegaly, Splenomegaly) - Jaundice - Ascites - Fecal occult blood - Halitosis Skin and subcutaneous tissue disturbances of skin sensation (Hypoesthesia, Paresthesia, Hyperesthesia) - Rash - Cyanosis - Pallor - Flushing - Petechia - Desquamation - Induration - Diaphoresis Nervous and musculoskeletal systems abnormal involuntary movements ( Tremor, Spasm, Fasciculation, Athetosis) - Gait abnormality - lack of coordination ( Ataxia, Dysmetria, Dysdiadochokinesia, Hypotonia) - Tetany - Meningism - Hyperreflexia Urinary system Renal colic - Dysuria - Vesical tenesmus - Urinary incontinence - Urinary retention - Oliguria - Polyuria - Nocturia - Extravasation of urine - Extrarenal uremia Cognition, perception, emotional state and behaviour Anxiety - Somnolence - Coma - Amnesia ( Anterograde amnesia, Retrograde amnesia) - Dizziness/ Vertigo - smell and taste ( Anosmia, Ageusia, Parosmia, Parageusia) Speech and voice speech disturbances (Dysphasia, Aphasia, Dysarthria) - symbolic dysfunctions (Dyslexia, Alexia, Agnosia, Apraxia, Acalculia, Agraphia) - voice disturbances ( Dysphonia, Aphonia) General symptoms and signs Fever (Hyperpyrexia) - Headache - Chronic pain - Malaise/ Fatigue (Asthenia, Debility) - Fainting ( Vasovagal syncope) - Febrile seizure - Shock ( Cardiogenic shock) - Lymphadenopathy - Edema ( Peripheral edema, Anasarca) - Hyperhidrosis (Sleep hyperhidrosis) - Delayed milestone - Failure to thrive - Short stature ( Idiopathic) - food and fluid intake ( Anorexia, Polydipsia, Polyphagia) - Cachexia - Xerostomia - Clubbing