Classification & external resources
|| K11.7, R68.2
Xerostomia is the medical term for a dry mouth due to a lack of saliva. Xerostomia is sometimes colloquially called pasties or cottonmouth.
Additional recommended knowledge
Xerostomia can cause difficulty in speech and eating. It also leads to halitosis and a dramatic rise in the number of cavities, as the protective effect of saliva is no longer present, and can make the mucosa of the mouth more vulnerable to infection. Notably, a symptom of methamphetamine use usually called "meth mouth" is largely caused by xerostomia.
It may be a sign of an underlying disease, such as Sjögren's syndrome, poorly controlled diabetes, or Eaton-Lambert syndrome, but this is not always so.
Other causes of insufficient saliva include anxiety, medications, or alcohol, trauma to the salivary glands or their ducts or nerves, dehydration, excessive mouth breathing, previous radiation therapy, and also a natural result of aging. The vast majority of elderly individuals will suffer xerostomia to some degree. Playing or exercising a long time outside on a hot day will often cause your saliva glands to simply dry up as your bodily fluids are concentrated elsewhere. Xerostomia is a common side-effect of various drugs, such as cannabis, dextromethorphan, and several antidepressants.
Treatment involves finding any correctable causes and fixing those if possible. In many cases it is not possible to correct the xerostomia itself, and treatment focuses on relieving the symptoms and preventing cavities. Patients who have endured chemotherapy usually suffer from this post- treatment.
Patients with xerostomia should avoid the use of decongestants and antihistamines, and pay careful attention to oral hygiene. Sipping sugarless fluids frequently, chewing xylitol-containing gum, and using a carboxymethyl cellulose saliva substitute as a mouthwash may help. Aquoral may be prescribed to treat xerostomia. Non-systemic relief can be found using an oxidized glycerol triesters treatment used to coat the mouth.
- ^ Jensen JL, Langberg CW (1997): Temporary hyposalivation induced by radiation therapy in a child. Tidsskr Nor Loegeforen 21:3077-9
|Oral Pathology: Oral pathology (K00-K14, 520-529)|
|Developmental Anomalies||Anodontia/Hypodontia - Hyperdontia - abnormalities of size and form of teeth (Concrescence, Fusion, Gemination, Dens evaginatus/Talon cusp, Dens invaginatus, Enamel pearl, Macrodontia, Microdontia, Taurodontism) - disturbances in tooth formation (Dilaceration, Regional odontodysplasia, Turner's hypoplasia) - other hereditary disturbances in tooth structure (Amelogenesis imperfecta, Dentinogenesis imperfecta, Dentin dysplasia)|
|Hard, Soft and Periapical Tissues||Attrition - Abrasion - Ankylosis - Dental caries - Denticles - Erosion - External resorption - Fluorosis - Gingivitis - Impaction - Internal resorption - Periodontitis - Pulpitis - Ulcer|
|Dentofacial Anomalies||Malocclusion - Micrognathism - Prognathism - Retrognathism - Temporomandibular joint disorder|
|Maxillomandibular anomalies||Odontogenic keratocyst - Torus mandibularis - Torus palatinus - Cherubism - Ameloblastoma|
|Salivary glands||Drooling - Benign lymphoepithelial lesion - Necrotizing sialometaplasia - Ranula - Sialadenitis - Sialolithiasis - Stomatitis - Xerostomia - Aphthous ulcer|
|Lip and Oral mucosa||Angular cheilitis - Erythroplakia - Hairy leukoplakia - Leukoplakia|
|Tongue||Geographic tongue - Fissured tongue - Glossitis - Glossodynia - Black hairy tongue|
|Symptoms and signs (R00-R69, 780-789)|
|Tachycardia - Bradycardia - Palpitation - Heart murmur - Epistaxis - Hemoptysis - Cough - abnormalities of breathing (Dyspnea, Orthopnoea, Stridor, Wheeze, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, Hyperventilation, Mouth breathing, Hiccup, Bradypnea, Hypoventilation) - Chest pain - Asphyxia - Pleurisy - Respiratory arrest - Sputum - Bruit/Carotid bruit - Rales|
|Digestive system and abdomen||Abdominal pain (Acute abdomen) - Nausea/Vomiting - Heartburn - Dysphagia - flatulence and related (Abdominal distension, Bloating, Burping, Tympanites) - Fecal incontinence (Encopresis) - hepatosplenomegaly (Hepatomegaly, Splenomegaly) - Jaundice - Ascites - Fecal occult blood - Halitosis|
|Skin and subcutaneous tissue||disturbances of skin sensation (Hypoesthesia, Paresthesia, Hyperesthesia) - Rash - Cyanosis - Pallor - Flushing - Petechia - Desquamation - Induration - Diaphoresis|
|abnormal involuntary movements (Tremor, Spasm, Fasciculation, Athetosis) - Gait abnormality - lack of coordination (Ataxia, Dysmetria, Dysdiadochokinesia, Hypotonia) - Tetany - Meningism - Hyperreflexia|
|Urinary system||Renal colic - Dysuria - Vesical tenesmus - Urinary incontinence - Urinary retention - Oliguria - Polyuria - Nocturia - Extravasation of urine - Extrarenal uremia|
emotional state and behaviour
|Anxiety - Somnolence - Coma - Amnesia (Anterograde amnesia, Retrograde amnesia) - Dizziness/Vertigo - smell and taste (Anosmia, Ageusia, Parosmia, Parageusia)|
|Speech and voice||speech disturbances (Dysphasia, Aphasia, Dysarthria) - symbolic dysfunctions (Dyslexia, Alexia, Agnosia, Apraxia, Acalculia, Agraphia) - voice disturbances (Dysphonia, Aphonia)|
|General symptoms and signs||Fever (Hyperpyrexia) - Headache - Chronic pain - Malaise/Fatigue (Asthenia, Debility) - Fainting (Vasovagal syncope) - Febrile seizure - Shock (Cardiogenic shock) - Lymphadenopathy - Edema (Peripheral edema, Anasarca) - Hyperhidrosis (Sleep hyperhidrosis) - Delayed milestone - Failure to thrive - Short stature (Idiopathic) - food and fluid intake (Anorexia, Polydipsia, Polyphagia) - Cachexia - Xerostomia - Clubbing|