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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine



  The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine since 1901. The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil Adolf von Behring, a German, "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths." This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and widely regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in these fields. It is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. "The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm is when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King of Sweden. ... Under the eyes of a watching world, the Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount" ("What the Nobel Laureates Receive"). In 2007 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Mario Capecchi (of Italy), Sir Martin Evans (of the United Kingdom), and Oliver Smithies (of the United Kingdom and the United States), "for their discoveries for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"; they share the prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK (slightly more than €1 million, or US$1.4 million). The front side of "The medal of the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute" provides the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature; its reverse side "represents the Genius of Medicine holding an open book in her lap, collecting the water pouring out from a rock in order to quench a sick girl's thirst" ("The Nobel Prize Medals").

Additional recommended knowledge

List of Laureates

The following list includes the Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine since its inception in 1901.[1]

Year Name Nationality Citation
1901 Emil Adolf von Behring Germany "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"[2]
1902 Ronald Ross United Kingdom "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"[3]
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen Denmark "in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[4]
1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Russia "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"[5]
1905 Robert Koch Germany "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"[6]
1906 Camillo Golgi
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Italy
Spain
"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"[7]
1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran France "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"[8]
1908 Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov
Paul Ehrlich
Russia
Germany
"in recognition of their work on immunity"[9]
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher Switzerland "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[10]
1910 Albrecht Kossel Germany "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"[11]
1911 Allvar Gullstrand Sweden "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"[12]
1912 Alexis Carrel France "in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[13]
1913 Charles Robert Richet France "in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"[14]
1914 Robert Bárány Austria "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[15]
1915 [No award]
1916 [No award]
1917 [No award]
1918 [No award]
1919 Jules Bordet Belgium "for his discoveries relating to immunity"[16]
1920 Schack August Steenberg Krogh Denmark "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism" (for showing that the gas exchange in the lungs is ordinary diffusion)[17]
1921 [No award]
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill United Kingdom "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"[18]
Otto Fritz Meyerhof Germany "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[18]
1923 Frederick Grant Banting
John James Richard Macleod
Canada
United Kingdom
"for the discovery of insulin"[19]
1924 Willem Einthoven Netherlands "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[20]
1925 [No award]
1926 Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger Denmark "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[21]
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg Austria "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"[22]
1928 Charles Jules Henri Nicolle France "for his work on typhus"[23]
1929 Christiaan Eijkman Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"[24]
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"[24]
1930 Karl Landsteiner Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[25]
1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[26]
1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
Edgar Douglas Adrian
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"[27]
1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan United States "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"[28]
1934 George Hoyt Whipple
George Richards Minot
William Parry Murphy
United States
United States
United States
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[29]
1935 Hans Spemann Germany "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[30]
1936 Sir Henry Hallett Dale
Otto Loewi
United Kingdom;
Germany 1903: Austria 1946: United States
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[31]
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt Hungary "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[32]
1938 Corneille Jean François Heymans Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[33]
1939 Gerhard Domagk Germany "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"[34]
1940 [No award]
1941 [No award]
1942 [No award]
1943 Carl Peter Henrik Dam Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K"[35]
Edward Adelbert Doisy United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[35]
1944 Joseph Erlanger
Herbert Spencer Gasser
United States
United States
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[36]
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming
Ernst Boris Chain
Sir Howard Walter Florey
United Kingdom;
Germany United Kingdom;
Australia United Kingdom
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[37]
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[38]
1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
Czechoslovakia United States;
Czechoslovakia United States
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[39]
Bernardo Alberto Houssay Argentina "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"[39]
1948 Paul Hermann Müller Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"[40]
1949 Walter Rudolf Hess Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"[41]
Antonio Caetano De Abreu Freire Egas Moniz Portugal "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"[41]
1950 Edward Calvin Kendall
Tadeusz Reichstein
Philip Showalter Hench
United States;
Poland Switzerland;
United States
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[42]
1951 Max Theiler South Africa Switzerland "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[43]
1952 Selman Abraham Waksman Russia, 1916: United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[44]
1953 Hans Adolf Krebs West Germany United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[45]
Fritz Albert Lipmann West Germany United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[45]
1954 John Franklin Enders
Thomas Huckle Weller
Frederick Chapman Robbins
United States
United States
United States
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"[46]
1955 Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell Sweden "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"[47]
1956 André Frédéric Cournand
Werner Forssmann
Dickinson W. Richards
France, 1941: United States;
West Germany
United States
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"[48]
1957 Daniel Bovet Switzerland Italy "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[49]
1958 George Wells Beadle
Edward Lawrie Tatum
United States
United States
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"[50]
Joshua Lederberg United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[50]
1959 Severo Ochoa
Arthur Kornberg
Spain United States;
United States
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[51]
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Peter Brian Medawar
Australia United Kingdom;
Brazil United Kingdom
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[52]
1961 Georg von Békésy Hungary "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[53]
1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick
James Dewey Watson
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
United Kingdom;
United States;
New Zealand United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"[54]
1963 Sir John Carew Eccles
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Andrew Fielding Huxley
Australia
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[55]
1964 Konrad Bloch
Feodor Lynen
West Germany United States;
West Germany
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[56]
1965 François Jacob
André Lwoff
Jacques Monod
France
France
France
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[57]
1966 Peyton Rous United States "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"[58]
Charles B. Huggins Canada United States "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"[58]
1967 Ragnar Granit
Haldan Keffer Hartline
George Wald
Finland 1940: Sweden;
United States
United States
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[59]
1968 Robert W. Holley
Har Gobind Khorana
Marshall W. Nirenberg
United States;
India 1966: United States;
United States
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[60]
1969 Max Delbrück
Alfred Hershey
Salvador E. Luria
West Germany United States;
United States;
Italy
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[61]
1970 Sir Bernard Katz
Ulf von Euler
Julius Axelrod
West Germany 1941: United Kingdom;
Sweden
United States
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[62]
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. United States "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"[63]
1972 Gerald M. Edelman
Rodney R. Porter
United States
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[64]
1973 Karl von Frisch
Konrad Lorenz
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Austria
Austria
Netherlands
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"[65]
1974 Albert Claude
Christian de Duve
George E. Palade
Belgium;
Belgium;
Romania 1952: United States
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"[66]
1975 David Baltimore
Renato Dulbecco
Howard Martin Temin
United States;
Italy United States;
United States
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[67]
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg
D. Carleton Gajdusek
United States
United States
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[68]
1977 Roger Guillemin
Andrew Viktor Schally
France 1965: United States;
United States
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[69]
Rosalyn Yalow United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[69]
1978 Werner Arber
Daniel Nathans
Hamilton O. Smith
Switzerland
United States
United States
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[70]
1979 Allan M. Cormack
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
South Africa 1966: United States;
United Kingdom
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"[71]
1980 Baruj Benacerraf
Jean Dausset
George D. Snell
Venezuela 1943: United States;
France;
United States
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[72]
1981 Roger W. Sperry United States "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"[73]
David H. Hubel
Torsten N. Wiesel
United States
Sweden
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[73]
1982 Sune Bergström
Bengt I. Samuelsson
John R. Vane
Sweden
Sweden
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"[74]
1983 Barbara McClintock United States "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[75]
1984 Niels K. Jerne
Georges J.F. Köhler
César Milstein
Denmark;
West Germany;
Argentina United Kingdom
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[76]
1985 Michael S. Brown
Joseph L. Goldstein
United States
United States
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[77]
1986 Stanley Cohen
Rita Levi-Montalcini
United States;
Italy United States
"for their discoveries of growth factors"[78]
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Japan "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"[79]
1988 Sir James W. Black
Gertrude B. Elion
George H. Hitchings
United Kingdom
United States
United States
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[80]
1989 J. Michael Bishop
Harold E. Varmus
United States
United States
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[81]
1990 Joseph E. Murray
E. Donnall Thomas
United States
United States
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[82]
1991 Erwin Neher
Bert Sakmann
Germany
Germany
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"[83]
1992 Edmond H. Fischer
Edwin G. Krebs
Switzerland United States;
United States
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[84]
1993 Richard J. Roberts
Phillip A. Sharp
United Kingdom
United States
"for their discoveries of split genes"[85]
1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Martin Rodbell
United States
United States
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[86]
1995 Edward B. Lewis
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Eric F. Wieschaus
United States
Germany
United States
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[87]
1996 Peter C. Doherty
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Australia
Switzerland
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"[88]
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner United States "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"[89]
1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Louis J. Ignarro
Ferid Murad
United States
United States
United States
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[90]
1999 Günter Blobel Germany 1987: United States "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"[91]
2000 Arvid Carlsson
Paul Greengard
Eric R. Kandel
Sweden
United States
United States
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[92]
2001 Leland H. Hartwell
R. Timothy (Tim) Hunt
Sir Paul M. Nurse
United States
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"[93]
2002 Sydney Brenner
H. Robert Horvitz
John E. Sulston
South Africa United Kingdom 2003: Singapore[94] (honorary);
United States;
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[95]
2003 Paul Lauterbur
Sir Peter Mansfield
United States
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"[96]
2004 Richard Axel
Linda B. Buck
United States
United States
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[97]
2005 Barry J. Marshall
J. Robin Warren
Australia
Australia
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"[98]
2006 Andrew Z. Fire
Craig C. Mello
United States
United States
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[99]
2007 Mario Capecchi
Sir Martin Evans
Oliver Smithies
Italy United States;
United Kingdom;
United Kingdom United States
"for their discoveries for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[100]

References

  1. ^ All Nobel Laureates in Medicine. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
  2. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  3. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  4. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  5. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  6. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
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  12. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
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  28. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  29. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  30. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  31. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
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  36. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
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  38. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
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  88. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  89. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  90. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  91. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  92. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  93. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  94. ^ Sydney Brenner, PhD: Biography. 2005 IEEE Computational Systems Bioinformatics Conference. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  95. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  96. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  97. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  98. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  99. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  100. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Nobel_Prize_in_Physiology_or_Medicine". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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