Sir Martin John Evans FRS (born 1 January 1941) is a British scientist, credited with discovering how to culture embryonic stem cells in 1981, and for his work in the development of the knockout mouse and the related technology of gene targeting. In 2007, he was a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in recognition of his gene targeting work.
He is married and has one daughter and two sons. His wife Judith Evans (granddaughter of Christopher Williams) was awarded an MBE for her services to practice nursing in 1993.
Additional recommended knowledge
- 1963 - Graduated from Christ's College, University of Cambridge.
- 1969 - Gained PhD at University College London.
- 1966-1978 - Lecturer at the Anatomy and Embryology department at University College London - research work, and taught PhD students and undergraduate students.
- 1978-1999 - Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge. Work in association with Matthew Kaufman began 1980.
- 1999-present - Professor of Mammalian Genetics and Director of the School of Biosciences, Cardiff University.
- 11 March 1993 - Fellow of the Royal Society.
- 1998 - Founder Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences.
- 3 May 1999 - The USA charity March of Dimes awarded their annual prize in Developmental Biology for research into embryonic growth jointly to Professor Richard Gardner of Oxford University and Evans.
- 2002 - Honorary doctorate from Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA.
- 1 January 2004 - Knighthood (Queen’s New Years Honours) for his services to medical science.
- 19 July 2005 - Honorary doctorate from the University of Bath, England.
Stem cell research
In 1981, Evans and Matt Kaufman published results for experiments in which they isolated embryonic stem cells from mouse blastocysts and grew them in cell culture. This was also achieved by Gail R. Martin, independently, in the same year. The availability of these cultured stem cells eventually made possible the introduction of specific gene alterations into the germ line of mice and the creation of transgenic mice. There's a period that Evans worked in the Whitehead Institute at MIT.
Evans and his collaborators showed that they could introduce a new gene into cultured embryonic stem cells and then use such genetically transformed cells to make chimeric embryos . In some chimeric embryos, the genetically altered stem cells produced gametes, thus allowing transmission of the artificially induced mutation into future generations of mice. Transgenic mice with induced mutations in the enzyme Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) were created. The HPRT mutations were produced by retroviral insertion, but it was proposed that by taking advantage of genetic recombination between the normal HPRT gene and an artificial gene sequenced added to the cultured embryonic stem cells, "it may also eventually be possible to produce specific alterations in endogenous genes through homologous recombination with cloned copies modified in vitro". The production of transgenic mice using this proposed approach was accomplished in the laboratories of Oliver Smithies, and also of Mario Capecchi.
- ^ Evans, Martin J. (October 2001). "The cultural mouse.". Nature Medicine 7 (10): 1081-1083. Retrieved on 1 October 2007.
- ^ a b c d e f Stem cell architect is knighted BBC News : Wednesday, 31 December, 2003
- ^ a b The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 8 October 2007.
- ^ Leader of the Stem Cell Revolution Wins Noble Prize. Medscape Today (2007-10-17). Retrieved on 2 November 2007.
- ^ a b 20th Nobel Prize for UCL community. University College London (2007-10-08). Retrieved on 9 October 2007.
- ^ a b c Staff list: Sir Martin Evans FRS, DSc. School of Biosciences, Cardiff University. Retrieved on 1 October 2007.
- ^ List of Fellows of the Royal Society: 1660–2007: A - J. The Royal Society. Retrieved on 9 October 2007.
- ^ Directory listing. Academy of Medical Sciences. Retrieved on 9 October 2007.
- ^ March of Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology: Previous Recipients. March of Dimes. Retrieved on 1 October 2007.
- ^ 2001 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. Lasker Foundation. Retrieved on 1 October 2007.
- ^ Albert Lasker Award. Cardiff University. Retrieved on 9 October 2007.
- ^ Distinguished Visitor Programme: Biographical Notes: Professor Sir Martin Evans. Agency for Science, Technology and Research (Singapore). Retrieved on 9 October 2007.
- ^ Summer graduation ceremonies begin today at Bath Abbey. University of Bath (2005-07-19). Retrieved on 8 October 2007.
- ^ Evans M, Kaufman M (1981). "Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos.". Nature 292 (5819): 154-6. PMID 7242681.
- ^ Martin G (1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78 (12): 7634-8. PMID 6950406.
- ^ Bradley A, Evans M, Kaufman MH, Robertson E (1984). "Formation of germ-line chimaeras from embryo-derived teratocarcinoma cell lines.". Nature 309 (5965): 255-256. PMID 6717601.
- ^ Robertson E, Bradley, A., Kuehn, M., Evans, M. (1986). "Germ-line transmission of genes introduced into cultured pluripotential cells by retroviral vector.". Nature 323 (6087): 445-448. PMID 3762693.
- ^ Kuehn MR, Bradley A, Robertson EJ, Evans MJ. (1987). "A potential animal model for Lesch-Nyhan syndrome through introduction of HPRT mutations into mice.". Nature 326 (5819): 295-298. PMID 3029599.
- ^ Doetschman T, Gregg, R.G., Maeda, N., Hooper, M.L., Melton, D.W., Thompson, S., Smithies, O. (1989). "Germ-line transmission of a planned alteration made in a hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 86 (22): 8927-8931. PMID 2573070.
- ^ Thomas KR, Deng C, Capecchi MR. (1992). "High-fidelity gene targeting in embryonic stem cells by using sequence replacement vectors". Mol Cell Biol. 12 (7): 2919-2923. PMID 1620105.
|| Evans, Martin
| ALTERNATIVE NAMES
| SHORT DESCRIPTION
|| Developmental biology, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007.
| DATE OF BIRTH
|| 1 January 1941
| PLACE OF BIRTH
|| Stroud, Gloucestershire, England
| DATE OF DEATH
| PLACE OF DEATH