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Andrew Zachary Fire (born April 27, 1959) is an American biologist and Professor of pathology and of genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine. He was awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Craig C. Mello, for the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi). This research was conducted at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and published in 1998.
Additional recommended knowledge
Andrew Fire was born in Palo Alto, California and raised in Sunnyvale, California. He graduated from Fremont High School. He attended the University of California, Berkeley after being turned down by Stanford University, his only other college choice. He received his B.A. in mathematics from Berkeley in 1978 at the age of 19. He then proceeded to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received a Ph.D. in biology in 1983 under the mentorship of Nobel laureate geneticist Phillip Sharp.
From 1986 to 2003, Fire was a staff member of the Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Department of Embryology in Baltimore. The initial work on double stranded RNA as a trigger of gene silencing was published while Fire and his group were at the Carnegie Labs. 
Fire became an adjunct professor in the Department of Biology at Johns Hopkins University starting in 1989 and joined the Stanford faculty in 2003. Throughout his career, all of the major work in Fire’s lab has been supported by research grants from the U.S. National Institutes of Health.
He is a member of the two prestigious learned societies: the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He also serves on the Board of Scientific Counselors and the National Center for Biotechnology, National Institutes of Health.
In 2006, Mello and Fire received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work that began in 1998, when Mello and Fire along with their colleagues (SiQun Xu, Mary Montgomery, Stephen Kostas, Sam Driver) published a paper  in the journal Nature detailing how tiny snippets of RNA fool the cell into destroying the gene's messenger RNA (mRNA) before it can produce a protein - effectively shutting specific genes down.
The Nobel citation, issued by Sweden's Karolinska Institute, said: "This year's Nobel Laureates have discovered a fundamental mechanism for controlling the flow of genetic information."
Mello and Fire's research, conducted at the Carnegie Institution, had shown that in fact RNA plays a key role in gene regulation. The BBC noted
Awards and honors
Fire has received the following awards and honors:
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Andrew_Fire". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|