My watch list
my.bionity.com  
Login  

Hypermagnesemia



Hypermagnesemia
Classification & external resources
Magnesium
ICD-10 E83.4
ICD-9 275.2
DiseasesDB 6259
eMedicine med/3383  emerg/262 ped/1080

Hypermagnesemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of magnesium in the blood. Usually this results in excess of magnesium in the body.

Hypermagnesemia occurs rarely because the kidney is very effective in excreting excess magnesium. It usually develops only in people with kidney failure who are given magnesium salts or who take drugs that contain magnesium (e.g. some antacids and laxatives). It is usually concurrent with hypercalcemia and/or hyperkalemia.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Metabolism

For a detailed description of magnesium homeostasis and metabolism see hypomagnesemia.

Symptoms

Clinical consequences related to serumconcentration:

  • 4.0 mEq/l hyporeflexia
  • >5.0 mEq/l Prolonged atrioventricular conduction
  • >10.0 mEq/l Complete heart block
  • >13.0 mEq/l Cardiac arrest

Causes

Since magnesium is excreted through the kidneys, renal failure can result in hypermagnesemia. The most important cause however is suppletion.

Predisposing conditions

  • Hemolysis, magnesium concentration in erythrocytes is approximately three times greater than in serum, therefore hemolysis can increase plasma magnesium. Hypermagnesemia is expected only in massive hemolysis.
  • Renal insufficiency, excretion of magnesium becomes impaired when creatinine clearance falls below 30 ml/min. However, hypermagnesemia is not a prominent feature of renal insufficiency unless magnesium intake is increased.
  • Other conditions that can predispose to mild hypermagnesemia are diabetic ketoacidosis, adrenal insufficiency, hyperparathyroidism and lithium intoxication.

Therapy

Prevention of hypermagnesemia usually is possible. In mild cases, withdrawing magnesium suppletion is often sufficient. In more severe cases the following treatments are used:

Definitive treatment of hypermagnesemia requires increasing renal magnesium excretion through:

  • Intravenous diuretics, in the presence of normal renal function
  • Dialysis, when kidney function is impaired and the patient is symptomatic from hypermagnesemia
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Hypermagnesemia". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE