Classification & external resources
| Varus Deformity MRI and photograph
In orthopedics, a varus deformity is a term for the inward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint. The opposite of varus is called valgus.
Additional recommended knowledge
The terms varus and valgus always refer to the direction that the distal segment of the joint points.
For example, in a VARUS deformity of the knee, the distal part of the leg below the knee is deviated inward, resulting in a bowlegged appearance. Conversely, a valgus deformity at the knee results in a knock-kneed appearance, with the distal part of the leg deviated outward.
The terminology is made confusing by the etymology of these words.
- In Latin, valgus actually means "knock-kneed" and varus means "bowlegged."
- In a knock-kneed person, the femur is deviated inward in relation to the hip, so the term varus is correctly applied for the hip, as it refers to the distal segment being angled inward.
- But in the same knock-kneed person, the opposite situation is found at the knee, with the distal segment now being deviated outward, so the term valgus is used for the knee.
- It is correct for a knock-kneed deformity to be called both a varus deformity at the hip/femur and a valgus deformity at the knee/tibia, although the common terminology is to refer to it as genu valgum.
If this is confusing, just remember that "varus = inward" and "valgus = outward" and always refers to the direction that the distal part of the joint points.
When the terminology specifies a bone rather than a joint, the bone is taken to be the distal segment of a joint. Thus, a varus deformity of the tibia refers to the femur/tibia joint (the knee) and not the ankle joint.
- Hip: coxa vara — the angle between the ball and the shaft of the femur is reduced, resulting in a limp.
- Knee: genu varum (from Latin genu = knee) — the tibia is turned inward in relation to the femur, resulting in a bowlegged deformity.
- Ankle: talipes varus (from Latin talus = ankle and pes = foot) — inward turning of the heel, resulting in clubfoot with the person walking on the outer part of the foot.
- Toe: hallux varus (Latin hallux = big toe) — inward deviation of the big toe away from the second toe.
- Elbows: cubitus varus (Latin cubitus = elbow) — turned inward elbows
|Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (M, 710-739)|
|Arthropathies||Arthritis (Septic arthritis, Reactive arthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Psoriatic arthritis, Felty's syndrome, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Still's disease) - crystal (Gout, Chondrocalcinosis) - Osteoarthritis (Heberden's node, Bouchard's nodes)
acquired deformities of fingers and toes (Boutonniere deformity, Bunion, Hallux rigidus, Hallux varus, Hammer toe) - other acquired deformities of limbs (Valgus deformity, Varus deformity, Wrist drop, Foot drop, Flat feet, Club foot, Unequal leg length, Winged scapula)
patella (Luxating patella, Chondromalacia patellae)
Protrusio acetabuli - Hemarthrosis - Arthralgia - Osteophyte
|Polyarteritis nodosa - Churg-Strauss syndrome - Kawasaki disease - Hypersensitivity vasculitis - Goodpasture's syndrome - Wegener's granulomatosis - Arteritis (Takayasu's arteritis, Temporal arteritis) - Microscopic polyangiitis - Systemic lupus erythematosus (Drug-induced) - Dermatomyositis (Juvenile dermatomyositis) - Polymyositis - Scleroderma - Sjögren's syndrome - Behçet's disease - Polymyalgia rheumatica - Eosinophilic fasciitis - Hypermobility|
|Dorsopathies||Kyphosis - Lordosis - Scoliosis - Scheuermann's disease - Spondylolysis - Torticollis - Spondylolisthesis - Spondylopathies (Ankylosing spondylitis, Spondylosis, Spinal stenosis) - Schmorl's nodes - Degenerative disc disease - Coccydynia - Back pain (Radiculopathy, Neck pain, Sciatica, Low back pain)|
|Soft tissue disorders||muscle: Myositis - Myositis ossificans (Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva)
synovium and tendon: Synovitis - Tenosynovitis (Stenosing tenosynovitis, Trigger finger, DeQuervain's syndrome)
bursitis (Olecranon, Prepatellar, Trochanteric)
fibroblastic (Dupuytren's contracture, Plantar fasciitis, Nodular fasciitis, Necrotizing fasciitis, Fasciitis, Fibromatosis)
enthesopathies (Iliotibial band syndrome, Achilles tendinitis, Patellar tendinitis, Golfer's elbow, Tennis elbow, Metatarsalgia, Bone spur, Tendinitis)
other, NEC: Muscle weakness - Rheumatism - Myalgia - Neuralgia - Neuritis - Panniculitis - Fibromyalgia
|Osteopathies||disorders of bone density and structure: Osteoporosis - Osteomalacia - continuity of bone (Pseudarthrosis, Stress fracture) - Monostotic fibrous dysplasia - Skeletal fluorosis - Aneurysmal bone cyst - Hyperostosis - Osteosclerosis|
Osteomyelitis - Avascular necrosis - Paget's disease of bone - Algoneurodystrophy - Osteolysis - Infantile cortical hyperostosis
|Chondropathies||Juvenile osteochondrosis (Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, Köhler disease, Sever's disease) - Osteochondritis - Tietze's syndrome|
|See also congenital conditions (Q65-Q79, 754-756)|