Classification & external resources
| The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the ankle. Lateral aspect. (Tendo calcaneus labeled at left.)
Sever's disease, or calcaneal apophysitis, is the most frequent cause of heel pain in children between the ages of 8 and 13 and is due to an inflammation of growing plates, of the calcaneus in the back of the foot, due to the rapid growth of bone when compared to the calceneal tendon (otherwise known as the Achilles tendon).
Additional recommended knowledge
It is named for JW Sever, who characterized it in 1912.
- Complaints of pain or tenderness in the heel (or heels)
- Discomfort upon awaking, or when heel is squeezed
- More severe pain after walking and more difficulty walking
- Pain during running or playing sports
Sever’s disease is directly related to overuse of the bone and tendons in the heel. This can come from playing sports (i.e. football, basketball, lacrosse) or anything that involves lots of heel movements. It can be associated with starting a new sport, or the start of a new season. Too much weight bearing down on the heel can also cause it as can excessive traction since the bones and tendons are still developing.
Treatment may consist of one or more of the following:
- Stopping sports or other activities that aggravate the condition.
- Elevating the heel
- Stretching hamstring and calf muscles 2-3 times daily
- In some cases, casting may be necessary
- Using R.I.C.E. (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation)
- Stretching exercises
- HTP Heel seats
- In some cases medication may be needed (ask doctor)
Sever’s disease is self-recovering, meaning that it will go away on its own when it is used less or when the bone is through growing. The condition is not expected to create any long-term disability, and expected to subside in 2-8 weeks.
However, while the disease does subside quickly, it can recur, for example at the start of a new sports season, several times if it is not taken care of.
- Maintain good flexibility through stretching exercises
- Avoid excessive running on hard surfaces
- Use quality, well-fitting shoes with firm support and a shock-absorbent sole
- ^ Sever JW: Apophysitis of the Os Calcis. New York Medical Journal 1912; 95: 1025-1029.
- ^ Hendrix CL (2005). "Calcaneal apophysitis (Sever disease)". Clinics in podiatric medicine and surgery 22 (1): 55-62, vi. doi:10.1016/j.cpm.2004.08.011. PMID 15555843.
- ^ a b Madden CC, Mellion MB (1996). "Sever's disease and other causes of heel pain in adolescents". American family physician 54 (6): 1995-2000. PMID 8900359.
|Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (M, 710-739)|
|Arthropathies||Arthritis (Septic arthritis, Reactive arthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Psoriatic arthritis, Felty's syndrome, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Still's disease) - crystal (Gout, Chondrocalcinosis) - Osteoarthritis (Heberden's node, Bouchard's nodes)
acquired deformities of fingers and toes (Boutonniere deformity, Bunion, Hallux rigidus, Hallux varus, Hammer toe) - other acquired deformities of limbs (Valgus deformity, Varus deformity, Wrist drop, Foot drop, Flat feet, Club foot, Unequal leg length, Winged scapula)
patella (Luxating patella, Chondromalacia patellae)
Protrusio acetabuli - Hemarthrosis - Arthralgia - Osteophyte
|Polyarteritis nodosa - Churg-Strauss syndrome - Kawasaki disease - Hypersensitivity vasculitis - Goodpasture's syndrome - Wegener's granulomatosis - Arteritis (Takayasu's arteritis, Temporal arteritis) - Microscopic polyangiitis - Systemic lupus erythematosus (Drug-induced) - Dermatomyositis (Juvenile dermatomyositis) - Polymyositis - Scleroderma - Sjögren's syndrome - Behçet's disease - Polymyalgia rheumatica - Eosinophilic fasciitis - Hypermobility|
|Dorsopathies||Kyphosis - Lordosis - Scoliosis - Scheuermann's disease - Spondylolysis - Torticollis - Spondylolisthesis - Spondylopathies (Ankylosing spondylitis, Spondylosis, Spinal stenosis) - Schmorl's nodes - Degenerative disc disease - Coccydynia - Back pain (Radiculopathy, Neck pain, Sciatica, Low back pain)|
|Soft tissue disorders||muscle: Myositis - Myositis ossificans (Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva)
synovium and tendon: Synovitis - Tenosynovitis (Stenosing tenosynovitis, Trigger finger, DeQuervain's syndrome)
bursitis (Olecranon, Prepatellar, Trochanteric)
fibroblastic (Dupuytren's contracture, Plantar fasciitis, Nodular fasciitis, Necrotizing fasciitis, Fasciitis, Fibromatosis)
enthesopathies (Iliotibial band syndrome, Achilles tendinitis, Patellar tendinitis, Golfer's elbow, Tennis elbow, Metatarsalgia, Bone spur, Tendinitis)
other, NEC: Muscle weakness - Rheumatism - Myalgia - Neuralgia - Neuritis - Panniculitis - Fibromyalgia
|Osteopathies||disorders of bone density and structure: Osteoporosis - Osteomalacia - continuity of bone (Pseudarthrosis, Stress fracture) - Monostotic fibrous dysplasia - Skeletal fluorosis - Aneurysmal bone cyst - Hyperostosis - Osteosclerosis|
Osteomyelitis - Avascular necrosis - Paget's disease of bone - Algoneurodystrophy - Osteolysis - Infantile cortical hyperostosis
|Chondropathies||Juvenile osteochondrosis (Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, Köhler disease, Sever's disease) - Osteochondritis - Tietze's syndrome|
|See also congenital conditions (Q65-Q79, 754-756)|