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Hypersensitivity vasculitis (or hypersensitivity angiitis or leukocytoclastic vasculitis) is usually due to a hypersensitivity reaction to a known drug, auto-antigens or infectious agents such as bacteria. Immune complexes lodge in the vessel wall, attracting polymorphonuclear leukocytes who in turn release tissue-degrading substances leading to an inflammatory process.
Additional recommended knowledge
Palpable, normally painful, petechiae or purpura (skin vasculitis). The lesions normally arise in crops, with common localizations being the forearms and legs. Necrosis of skin tissue can yield lesions with black or brown centres. This disorder may affect the skin only, but sometimes affect nerves, the kidneys, joints and the heart. Renal involvement is common.
The primary goal is to identify the causing agent, be it a drug or a microbe. Questioning is important, as is a thorough physical examination, chest X-ray, ESR and biochemical organ tests. Skin biopsy of the lesions reveal inflammation of the small vessels, termed leukocytoclastic vasculitis, which is most prominent in postcapillary venules. Tests for hepatitis virus, antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor and cryoglobulins might be indicated.
At least 3 out of 5 criteria yields a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 84%:
The most important part of the treatment is to eliminate the cause of the vasculitis, if at all possible. Antihistamines prove helpful to some patients. If the vasculitis is damaging organ systems such as the kidneys, immunosuppressive agents are indicated.
acquired deformities of fingers and toes (Boutonniere deformity, Bunion, Hallux rigidus, Hallux varus, Hammer toe) - other acquired deformities of limbs (Valgus deformity, Varus deformity, Wrist drop, Foot drop, Flat feet, Club foot, Unequal leg length, Winged scapula)
patella (Luxating patella, Chondromalacia patellae)Protrusio acetabuli - Hemarthrosis - Arthralgia - Osteophyte
|Polyarteritis nodosa - Churg-Strauss syndrome - Kawasaki disease - Hypersensitivity vasculitis - Goodpasture's syndrome - Wegener's granulomatosis - Arteritis (Takayasu's arteritis, Temporal arteritis) - Microscopic polyangiitis - Systemic lupus erythematosus (Drug-induced) - Dermatomyositis (Juvenile dermatomyositis) - Polymyositis - Scleroderma - Sjögren's syndrome - Behçet's disease - Polymyalgia rheumatica - Eosinophilic fasciitis - Hypermobility|
|Dorsopathies||Kyphosis - Lordosis - Scoliosis - Scheuermann's disease - Spondylolysis - Torticollis - Spondylolisthesis - Spondylopathies (Ankylosing spondylitis, Spondylosis, Spinal stenosis) - Schmorl's nodes - Degenerative disc disease - Coccydynia - Back pain (Radiculopathy, Neck pain, Sciatica, Low back pain)|
|Soft tissue disorders||muscle: Myositis - Myositis ossificans (Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva) Muscle weakness - Rheumatism - Myalgia - Neuralgia - Neuritis - Panniculitis - Fibromyalgia|
|Osteopathies||disorders of bone density and structure: Osteoporosis - Osteomalacia - continuity of bone (Pseudarthrosis, Stress fracture) - Monostotic fibrous dysplasia - Skeletal fluorosis - Aneurysmal bone cyst - Hyperostosis - Osteosclerosis|
Osteomyelitis - Avascular necrosis - Paget's disease of bone - Algoneurodystrophy - Osteolysis - Infantile cortical hyperostosis
|Chondropathies||Juvenile osteochondrosis (Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, Köhler disease, Sever's disease) - Osteochondritis - Tietze's syndrome|
|See also congenital conditions (Q65-Q79, 754-756)|