My watch list
my.bionity.com  
Login  

Sleep disorder



Sleep disorder
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 F51., G47.
ICD-9 307.4, 327, 780.5
DiseasesDB 26877
eMedicine med/609 
MeSH D012893

A sleep disorder (somnipathy) is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. A test commonly ordered for some sleep disorders is the polysomnogram.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Common sleep disorders

The most common sleep disorders include:

  • Bruxism: The sufferer involuntarily grinds or clenches his or her teeth while sleeping.
  • Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS): A sleep disorder of circadian rhythm, characterized by the inability to wake up and fall asleep at the desired times, but not by inability to stay asleep.
  • Hypopnea syndrome: Abnormally shallow breathing or slow respiratory rate while sleeping.
  • Narcolepsy: The condition of falling asleep spontaneously and unwillingly at inappropriate times.
  • Night terror or Pavor nocturnus or sleep terror disorder: abrupt awakening from sleep with behavior consistent with terror.
  • Parasomnias: Include a variety of disruptive sleep-related events.
  • Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD): Sudden involuntary movement of arms and/or legs during sleep, for example kicking the legs. Also known as nocturnal myoclonus. See also Hypnic jerk, which is not a disorder. PLMD sufferers often do not also have RLS.
  • Rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD): Acting out violent or dramatic dreams while in REM sleep.
  • Hatzfeldt Syndrome or Systemic Neuro-Epiphysial Disorder (SNED) is a somnipathy mainly characterized by an irregular sleep pattern, as well as irregular behavior
  • Restless legs syndrome (RLS): An irresistible urge to move legs. RLS sufferers often also have PLMD.
  • Shift work sleep disorder (SWSD).
  • Sleep apnea: The obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing loud snoring and sudden awakenings when breathing stops.
  • Sleepwalking or somnambulism: Engaging in activities that are normally associated with wakefulness (such as eating or dressing), which may include walking, without the conscious knowledge of the subject.
  • Snoring: Loud breathing patterns while sleeping; sometimes this is a symptom of sleep apnea.

Broad classifications of sleep disorders

Common causes of sleep disorders

Changes in life style, such as shift work change (SWC), can contribute to sleep disorders.

Other problems that can affect sleep:

A sleep diary can be used to help diagnose, and measure improvements in, sleep disorders. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire[1] (MEQ) by Horne and Östberg are other useful diagnostic tools.

According to Dr. William Dement, of the Stanford Sleep Center, anyone who snores and has daytime drowsiness should be evaluated for sleep disorders.

Any time back pain or another form of chronic pain is present, both the pain and the sleep problems should be treated simultaneously, as pain can lead to sleep problems and vice versa.

General Principles of Treatment

Treatments for sleep disorders generally can be grouped into three categories: 1) behavioral/ psychotherapeutic treatments, 2) medications, and 3) other somatic treatments. None of these general approaches is sufficient for all patients with sleep disorders. Rather, the choice of a specific treatment depends on the patient's diagnosis, medical and psychiatric history, and preferences, as well as the expertise of the treating clinician. In general, medications and somatic treatments provide more rapid symptomatic relief from sleep disturbances. On the other hand, some emerging evidence suggests that treatment gains with behavioral treatment of insomnia may be more durable than those obtained with medications.

Some sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy, are best treated pharmacologically, whereas others, such as chronic and primary insomnia, are more amenable to behavioral interventions. The management of sleep disturbances that are secondary to mental, medical, or substance abuse disorders should focus on the underlying conditions.

For most sleep disorders, behavioral/psychotherapeutic and pharmacological approaches are not incompatible and can be effectively combined to maximize therapeutic benefits.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=PubMed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=1027738&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Sleep_disorder". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE