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Emotional and behavioral disorders

Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is a broad category which is used commonly in educational settings, to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children and adolescents. Both general definitions as well as concrete diagnosis of EBD may be controversial as the observed behavior may depend on many factors.

Often EBD students may have other disabilities such as: PDD, autism, Rett syndrome, PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome and ADHD.

Strategies for students classified with EBD

1. Routine: Provide a structured routine with visual time clock. Auditory sound cues may be helpful in addition to visual cues to help students manage their time efficiently. Post schedule and refer to schedule on regular basis. Routines may take 6-8 weeks to establish or even more for this population of students.

2. Changes in Routine: Convey any changes of routine to students as soon as available. The sooner students are aware of changes the more time students have to adjust to the new routine.

3. Classroom Jobs Chart/Classroom Order Chart: Classroom jobs offer an opportunity for student to show responsibility. In order to ensure success, make sure students have an opportunity to experience every job. One suggestion is having a chart with each students name and according job. Every week rotate the jobs. The list can double as the order in which students line up or choose preferred activities. Students with EBD classification tend to be competitive and need specific procedures informing the order students line up and choose activities.

4. Logical Consequences: Students must fix what they break. If a student pushes over a desk, he or she must pick it up. If a student runs in the hall, she must practice walking the correct way. If the student talks during the lesson, student must make up the work on his time. Be consistent with consequences so students know what is expected of them.

5. Target Behaviors: After taking data on students observable behavior, determine which behavior or behaviors to direct attention. Work with student to develop a plan to replace undesirable behavior with a more suitable behavior. If student throws desks and pencils when angry, have student work on communicating anger to an adult or trusted peer and how to be assertive without being aggressive.

6. Small Flexible Grouping: Students with EBD may have difficulty establishing relationships with peers. Abusive language and other behaviors may interfere with learning. Smaller groups decrease distractions and student-to-teacher ratio. Differentiation of instruction is more manageable with smaller groups.

7. Audience: During a serious behavior episode, the most effective strategy may be to remove the audience. The audience typically is other peers but may be other adults. The audience can be removed by moving the student if he or she is willing. However, moving the audience may be necessary in some cases. Develop a procedure with your class which will function as an "everybody out" drill. Behaviors amplified with an audience may be reduced or complete stopped when an audience is removed.

8. Calm spot: Have a designated area of the classroom for students to calm down. This spot can be used pro actively to prevent behaviors. Alternatively, the spot may be used after a behavior occurs to give the student a chance to refocus.

9. "Golden Carrot": A designated time usually at the end of the day can be used as incentive time. Discuss with students how they can earn an activity or prize at the end of the day. A behavior modification system and token economy may be used in conjunction with the incentives. Students may also reinforce math skills if a school store system is implemented. While younger students can use a smile/frown system, older students can use a point system. Talk with computer, gym, music, art, and library teachers to see if they would allow the students to have more specials time at the end of the day. Cooperative games can be taught for use in the gym to encourage generalization of adaptive behaviors.

10. Choices: Students may frustrate easily when doing work. Giving students an option of when to complete the work is a powerful tool. For example, a teacher may say, "You need to get this done today. Would you rather do it now or during your free time?"

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Emotional_and_behavioral_disorders". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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