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Landau-Kleffner syndrome



Landau-Kleffner syndrome
Classification & external resources
Landau-Kleffner syndrome is characterized by aphasia and an abnormal EEG
ICD-10 F80.3
OMIM 245570
DiseasesDB 31407
eMedicine neuro/182 
MeSH D018887

Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia or aphasia with convulsive disorder, is a rare, childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG). LKS affects the parts of the brain that control comprehension and speech. The disorder usually occurs in children between the ages of 5 and 7 years. Typically, children with LKS develop normally but then lose their language skills. While many of the affected individuals have clinical seizures, some only have electrographic seizures, including electrographic status epilepticus of sleep (ESES).

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Differential diagnosis

The syndrome can be difficult to diagnose and may be misdiagnosed as autism, pervasive developmental disorder, hearing impairment, learning disability, auditory/verbal processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation, childhood schizophrenia, or emotional/behavioral problems.

Treatment

Treatment for LKS usually consists of medications, such as anticonvulsants and corticosteroids, and speech therapy, which should be started early. A controversial treatment option involves a surgical technique called multiple subpial transection in which multiple incisions are made through the cortex of the affected part of the brain, severing the axonal tracts in the subjacent white matter.

Prognosis

The prognosis for children with LKS varies. Some affected children may have a permanent severe language disorder, while others may regain much of their language abilities (although it may take months or years). In some cases, remission and relapse may occur. The prognosis is improved when the onset of the disorder is after age 6 and when speech therapy is started early. Seizures generally disappear by adulthood.

References

  • Landau-Kleffner syndrome information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2007-02-13). Retrieved on 2007-08-23.
  • Landau-Kleffner syndrome. National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (2002). Retrieved on 2007-08-23.
  • Pearl PL, Carrazana EJ, Holmes GL (2001). "The Landau-Kleffner syndrome". Epilepsy Curr 1 (2): 39–45. PMID 15309183.
  • Rotenberg J, Pearl PL (2003). "Landau-Kleffner syndrome". Arch Neurol 60 (7): 1019–21. PMID 12873863.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Landau-Kleffner_syndrome". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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