| Mouth (human)
| Head and neck.
| A human mouth, closed.
|| cavitas oris
The human mouth (or oral cavity) is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and begins digestion by mechanically breaking up the solid food particles into smaller pieces and mixing them with saliva.
Additional recommended knowledge
The mouth plays an important role in speech (it is part of the vocal apparatus), facial expression, kissing, eating, drinking (especially with a straw), breathing, and smoking.
Infants are born with a sucking reflex, by which they instinctively know to suck for nourishment using their lips and jaw.
According to general etiquette, the mouth is kept closed, especially when chewing.
Lips are often adorned with lipstick or lip gloss although in most human cultures this is an affectation for females only.
Piercings have been made popular by the younger generations. Lip, tongue, and the 'Monroe' (Monroe piercing is a stud piercing placed on one's face in the same area as Marilyn Monroe's well known and prominent birthmark was) are piercings seen in many varieties. Piercings of any sort besides two subtle earrings are seen as rebellious to the norm in many western cultures.
The philtrum is the vertical groove in the upper lip, formed where the nasomedial and maxillary processes meet during embryo development. When these processes fail to fuse fully, a hare lip and/or cleft palate can result.
The nasolabial folds are the deep creases of tissue that extend from the nose to the sides of the mouth. One of the first signs of age on the human face is the increase in prominence of the nasolabial folds.
|Anatomy of torso, digestive system: Gastrointestinal tract|
|Upper GI: to stomach||Mouth • Pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx) • Esophagus • Crop|
|Upper GI: stomach||rugae - gastric pits - cardia/gland - fundus/gland - pylorus/gland - pyloric antrum - pyloric canal - greater curvature - lesser curvature - angular incisure|
|Lower GI: intestines||Small intestine: Duodenum (Suspensory muscle, Major duodenal papilla, Minor duodenal papilla) • Duodenojejunal flexure • Jejunum • Ileum • continuous (intestinal villus, crypts of Lieberkühn, circular folds)
Junction: Vermiform appendix • Ileocecal valve
Large intestine: Cecum • Colon (ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon) • continuous (taenia coli, haustra, epiploic appendix)
|Lower GI: termination||Rectum: Houston valve • rectal ampulla • pectinate line
Anal canal: anal valves • anal sinuses • anal columns • Hilton's white line
Anus: Sphincter ani internus muscle • Sphincter ani externus muscle
|Lower GI: lymph||GALT: Peyer's patches (M cells)|
|General anatomy of head and neck - head|
|Face/Occiput||Forehead • Eye • Ear • Temple • Cheek • Chin|
|External nose||Nostril • Nasal septum • Cartilages (Accessory nasal, of the septum, Greater alar, Lateral nasal, Lesser alar, Vomeronasal) • Olfactory glands|
|Nasal cavity||Choana • Turbinate • Sphenoethmoidal recess • Ethmoid bulla • Hiatus semilunaris • Ostium maxillare • Inferior meatus • Vomeronasal organ • Paranasal sinus|
|Mouth/oral cavity||Lip (Upper, Lower) • Philtrum • Jaw • Pterygomandibular raphe|
|Teeth||Permanent (Incisor, Canine, Premolar, Molar) • Deciduous|
|Tongue||Plica fimbriata • Median sulcus • Foramen cecum • Terminal sulcus • Frenulum linguae • Anterior tongue • Posterior tongue|
|Palate/roof of mouth||Hard palate • Soft palate • Palatine raphe • Incisive papilla • Uvula • Pharyngeal recess • Arches (Palatoglossal, Palatopharyngeal)|
|Salivary glands||Parotid gland/Parotid duct • Submandibular gland/Submandibular duct • Sublingual gland/Major sublingual duct|
|Other||fascia (Masseteric fascia, Temporal fascia, Galea aponeurotica) • Scalp|
|Oral Pathology: Oral pathology (K00-K14, 520-529)|
|Developmental Anomalies||Anodontia/Hypodontia - Hyperdontia - abnormalities of size and form of teeth (Concrescence, Fusion, Gemination, Dens evaginatus/Talon cusp, Dens invaginatus, Enamel pearl, Macrodontia, Microdontia, Taurodontism) - disturbances in tooth formation (Dilaceration, Regional odontodysplasia, Turner's hypoplasia) - other hereditary disturbances in tooth structure (Amelogenesis imperfecta, Dentinogenesis imperfecta, Dentin dysplasia)|
|Hard, Soft and Periapical Tissues||Attrition - Abrasion - Ankylosis - Dental caries - Denticles - Erosion - External resorption - Fluorosis - Gingivitis - Impaction - Internal resorption - Periodontitis - Pulpitis - Ulcer|
|Dentofacial Anomalies||Malocclusion - Micrognathism - Prognathism - Retrognathism - Temporomandibular joint disorder|
|Maxillomandibular anomalies||Odontogenic keratocyst - Torus mandibularis - Torus palatinus - Cherubism - Ameloblastoma|
|Salivary glands||Drooling - Benign lymphoepithelial lesion - Necrotizing sialometaplasia - Ranula - Sialadenitis - Sialolithiasis - Stomatitis - Xerostomia - Aphthous ulcer|
|Lip and Oral mucosa||Angular cheilitis - Erythroplakia - Hairy leukoplakia - Leukoplakia|
|Tongue||Geographic tongue - Fissured tongue - Glossitis - Glossodynia - Black hairy tongue|