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In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum while the large intestine is subdivided into the cecum and colon.
Structure and Function
The intestinal tract can be broadly divided into two different parts, the small and large intestine. Grayish-purple in color and about 35 mm (1.5 inches) in diameter, the small intestine is the first and longest, measuring 6 meters (20 feet) long average in an adult man. Shorter and relatively stockier, the large intestine is a dark reddish color, measuring roughly 1.5 meters (5 feet) long on average. Both intestines share a general structure with the whole gut, and are composed of several layers. The lumen is the cavity where digested material passes through and from where nutrients are absorbed. Along the whole length of the gut in the glandular epithelium are goblet cells. These secrete mucus which lubricates the passage of food along and protects it from digestive enzymes. Villi are vaginations of the mucosa and increase the overall surface area of the intestine while also containing a lacteal, which is connected to the lymph system and aids in the removal of lipids and tissue fluid from the blood supply. Microvilli are present on the epithelium of a villus and further increase the surface area over which absorption can take place.
The next layer is the muscularis mucosa which is a layer of smooth muscle that aids in the action of continued peristalsis along the gut. The submucosa contains nerves, blood vessels and elastic fibre with collagen that stretches with increased capacity but maintains the shape of the intestine. Surrounding this is the muscularis externa which comprises longitudinal and smooth muscle that again helps with continued peristalsis and the movement of digested material out of and along the gut.
Lastly there is the serosa which is made up of loose connective tissue and coated in mucus so as to prevent friction damage from the intestine rubbing against other tissue. Holding all this in place are the mesenteries which suspend the intestine in the abdominal cavity and stop it being disturbed when a person is physically active.
The large intestine hosts several kinds of bacteria that deal with molecules the human body is not able to breakdown itself. This is an example of symbiosis. These bacteria also account for the production of gases inside our intestine (this gas is released as flatulence when removed through the anus). However the large intestine is mainly concerned with the absorption of water from digested material (which is regulated by the hypothalamus), the reabsorption of sodium, as well as any nutrients that may have escaped primary digestion in the ileum.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Intestine". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|