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Paratyphoid fevers or Enteric fevers are a group of enteric illnesses caused by strains of the bacterium Salmonella paratyphi. There are three species of Salmonellae that cause paratyphoid: Salmonella paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B ( or S. schotmulleri) and S. paratyphi C (S. hirschfeldii).
Additional recommended knowledge
They are transmitted by means of contaminated water or food.
The paratyphoid bears similarities with typhoid fever, but its course is more benign.
Infections with S. Paratyphi A are common in Africa, they follow a course similar to typhoid but rose spots are more abundant and larger.
Diagnosis is made on the base of blood and stool cultures and the results of Widal test (aglutinnins anti AH).
Paratyphoid A usually responds well to chloramphenicol or co-trimoxazole therapy but relapses are frequent.
Paratyphoid B is more frequent in Europe. It can present as a typhoid like illness, as a severe gastroenteritis or with features of both. Herpes labialis, rare in true typhoid fever, is frequently seen in Para B.
Diagnosis is with isolation of the agent in blood or stool and demonstration of antibodies anti BH in the Widal test.
The disease responds well to chloramphenicol or co-trimoxazole.
Paratyphoid C is a rare infection, generally seen in the Far East. It presents as a septicaemia with metastatic abscesses. Cholecystitis is possible in the course of the disease.
Antibodies to para C are not usually tested and the diagnosis is made with blood cultures.
Chloramphenicol therapy is generally effective.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Paratyphoid_fever". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|