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Spirochaete



Spirochaetes

Treponema pallidum spirochetes.
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Spirochetes
Class: Spirochetes
Order: Spirochaetales
Buchanan 1917
Families

Spirochetaceae
   Borrelia
   Brevinema
   Cristispira
   Spirochaeta
   Spironema
   Treponema
"Serpulinaceae"
   Brachyspira (Serpulina)
Leptospiraceae
   Leptospira
   Leptonema

Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells.[1] Spirochetes are chemoheterotrophic in nature, with lengths between 5 and 250 µm and diameters around 0.1-0.6 µm.[citation needed]

Additional recommended knowledge

Spirochaetes are distinguished from other bacterial phyla by the location of their flagella, sometimes called axial filaments, which run lengthwise between the cell membrane and outer membrane. These cause a twisting motion which allows the spirochaete to move about.

The spirochaetes are divided into three families (Brachyspiraceae, Leptospiraceae, and Spirochaetaceae), all placed within a single order (Spirochaetales). Disease-causing members of this phylum include the following:

Most spirochaetes are free-living and anaerobic, but there are numerous exceptions, including the above.

Cavalier-Smith has postulated that the Spirochaetes belong in a larger clade called Gracilicutes.[4]

Historical

Salvarsan, the first antibiotic in medical history, was effective against spirochaetes only and was primarily used to cure syphilis.

It has been suggested by biologist Lynn Margulis that eukaryotic flagella were derived from symbiotic spirochaetes, but few biologists accept this, as there is no close structural similarity between the two.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0838585299. 
  2. ^ McBride A, Athanazio D, Reis M, Ko A (2005). "Leptospirosis". Curr Opin Infect Dis 18 (5): 376-86. PMID 16148523.
  3. ^ Schwan T (1996). "Ticks and Borrelia: model systems for investigating pathogen-arthropod interactions". Infect Agents Dis 5 (3): 167-81. PMID 8805079.
  4. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (2006). "Rooting the tree of life by transition analyses". Biology Direct 1 (19). Accessed 10 March 2006
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Spirochaete". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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