My watch list
my.bionity.com  
Login  

Clostridium



Clostridium

SEM micrograph of Clostridium difficile colonies from a stool sample.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Clostridia
Order: Clostridiales
Family: Clostridiaceae
Genus: Clostridium
Prazmowski 1880
Species

C. acetobutylicum
C. aerotolerans
C. botulinum
C. butyricum
C. colicanis
C. difficile
C. formicaceticum
C. ljungdahlii
C. laramie
C. novyi
C. perfringens
C. piliforme
C. sordellii
C. sporogenes
C. tetani
C. tyrobutyricum

Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the Firmicutes. They are obligate anaerobes capable of producing endospores.[1] Individual cells are rod-shaped, which gives them their name, from the Greek kloster or spindle. These characteristics traditionally defined the genus, but they are not phylogenetically significant; many species originally classified as Clostridium have been reclassified in other genera.

Additional recommended knowledge

Pathology

Clostridium includes common free-living bacteria as well as important pathogens.[2] There are four main species responsible for disease in humans:

Honey sometimes contains Clostridium botulinum bacteria, which may cause infant botulism in humans one year old and under. The bacteria produce botulinum toxin, which eventually paralyzes the infant's breathing muscles.[7] C. sordellii has been linked to the deaths of more than a dozen women after childbirth.

Commercial uses

C. thermocellum can utilize lignocellulosic waste and generate ethanol, thus making it a possible candidate for use in ethanol production. It also has no oxygen requirement and is thermophilic, reducing cooling cost. C. acetobutylicum, also known as the Weizmann organism, which was first used by Chaim Weizmann to produce acetone and biobutanol from starch in 1916 for the production of gunpowder and TNT.

The anaerobic bacterium C. ljungdahlii, recently discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass. Use of these bacteria to produce ethanol from synthesis gas has progressed to the pilot plant stage at the BRI Energy facility in Fayetteville, Arkansas.[8]

References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  2. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Clostridia: Sporeforming Anaerobic Bacilli in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  3. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Botulism and Clostridium botulinum in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  4. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea, Pseudomembranous Colitis, and Clostridium difficile in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  5. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Other Pathogenic Clostridia Food Poisoning and Clostridium perfringens in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. 
  6. ^ Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Tetanus and Clostribium tetani in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  7. ^ Tanzi MG, Gabay MP (2002). "Association between honey consumption and infant botulism". Pharmacotherapy 22 (11): 1479-83. PMID 12432974.
  8. ^ Providing for a Sustainable Energy Future. Bioengineering Resources, inc. Retrieved on 21 May 2007.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Clostridium". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE