Miconazole is an imidazoleantifungal agent, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, and commonly applied topically (to the skin) or mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes. It can also be used against certain species of Leishmaniaprotozoa (which are a type of unicellular parasite), as these also contain ergosterol in their cell membranes. In addition to its antifungal and antiparasitic actions, it also has some limited antibacterial properties.
Miconazole is also used in Ektachrome film developing (along with surfactants such as Photo-Flo) in the final rinse of the Kodak E-6 process and similar Fuji CR-56 process, replacing formaldehyde. Fuji Hunt also includes Miconazole as a final rinse additive in their formulation of process C-41RA rapid access color negative developing.
It has an advantage over Nystatin in the treatment of neonatal oral thrush in that the latter is only licensed in the UK for those over the age of one month; but note the possibility for drug interactions.
Unlike nystatin, some miconazole is absorbed by the intestinal tract when used orally (and possibly if used vaginally) which may lead to drug interactions.