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Bone: Stapes
A. Left stapes. B. Base of stapes, medial surface.
Chain of ossicles and their ligaments, seen from the front in a vertical, transverse section of the tympanum.
Tensor Tympani
Auditory Canal
Tympanic Membrane
(Ear Drum)
Eustachian Tube
Tympanic cavity
Bones and muscles in the tympanic cavity in the middle ear
Gray's subject #231 1045
Precursor 2nd branchial arch[1]
MeSH Stapes

The stapes or stirrup is the stirrup-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear which attaches the incus to the fenestra ovalis, the "oval window" which is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear. It is the smallest and lightest bone in the human body.

The stapes transmits the sound vibrations from the incus to the membrane of the inner ear inside the fenestra ovalis.

In non-mammalian vertebrates, the bone homologous to the stapes is usually called the columella; however, in reptiles, either term may be used.

See also


  1. ^ Embryology at UNC hednk-023
  • Vallejo-Valdezate LA, Martín-Gil J, José-Yacamán M, Martín-Gil FJ, Gil-Carcedo LM. "Scanning electron microscopy images and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of the stapes in otosclerosis and van der Hoeve syndrome". Laryngoscope. 2000 Sep;110(9):1505-10.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Stapes". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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