Classification & external resources
| Female internal reproductive anatomy. Uterus is in slightly anteverted position. A retroverted uterus would be tilted further backwards.
A retroverted uterus (tilted uterus, tipped uterus) is a uterus that is tilted backwards instead of forwards. This is in contrast to the slightly "anteverted" uterus that most women have, which is tipped forward toward the bladder, with the anterior end slightly concave.
One in three to five women (depending on the source) has a retroverted uterus, which is tipped backwards towards the spine.
Additional recommended knowledge
The following table distinguishes among some of the terms used for the position of the uterus:
A retroverted uterus should be distinguished from the following:
| Distinction || More common || Less common
| Position tipped || "anteverted": tipped forward || "retroverted": tipped backwards
| Position of fundus || "anteflexed": the fundus is pointing forward relative to the cervix. Anterior of uterus is concave. || "retroflexed": the fundus is pointing backwards. Anterior of uterus is convex.
Additional terms include:
- retrocessed uterus: both the superior and inferior ends of the uterus are pushed posteriorly
- severely anteflexed uterus: the uterus is in the same position as "normal" and bends in the same direction (concave is anterior) but the bend is much pronounced
- vertical uterus: the fundus (top of the uterus) is straight up.
In most cases, a retroverted uterus is congenital, but some cases are caused by pelvic surgery, pelvic adhesions, endometriosis, fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, or the labor of childbirth.
A retroverted uterus is usually diagnosed during a routine pelvic examination.
It usually does not pose any medical problems, though it can be associated with dyspareunia (pain during sexual intercourse) and dysmenorrhea (pain during menstruation).
Fertility & Pregnancy
Uterine position has no effect on fertility. A tipped uterus will usually right itself during the 10th to 12th week of pregnancy.
If a uterus does not right itself, it may be labeled persistent. "Persistent retroflexion of the pregnant uterus is incompatible with advanced pregnancy. If spontaneous or artificial reposistion does not occur, the patient either aborts or develops symptoms caused by incarceration of the uterus before the end of the fourth month. In exceptional instances, however, pregnancy may proceed, resulting in uterine sacculation. Spontaneous delivery is impossible, and rupture of the uterus may occur."
Treatment options are rarely needed, and include exercises, a pessary, manual repostioning, and surgery.
- ^ Gant NF. Cunningham FG. Basic Gynecology and Obstetrics, 1995, p 375 - chapter 48
|Diseases of the pelvis, genitals and breasts (N40-N99, 600-629)|
|Diseases of male genital organs||prostate: Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Prostatitis
testicle/epididymis: Hydrocele testis - Spermatocele - Testicular torsion - Orchitis - Epididymitis - Male infertility (Azoospermia, Oligospermia)
penis: Phimosis - Balanoposthitis - Balanitis - Priapism - Erectile dysfunction - Peyronie's disease
Hematospermia - Retrograde ejaculation
|Disorders of breast||Chronic cystic mastitis - Mastitis - Gynecomastia - Galactorrhea - Mastodynia - Nipple discharge - Galactocele|
of female pelvic organs
|Pelvic inflammatory disease: Salpingitis - Oophoritis - Hydrosalpinx - Parametritis - Vaginitis - Vulvitis|
of female genital tract
|Endometriosis (Adenomyosis) - prolapse (Cystocele, Rectocele, Urethrocele)
obstetric fistulae (Vesicovaginal fistula, Rectovaginal fistula)
Ovarian cyst - Endometrial polyp - Retroverted uterus - Asherman's syndrome - Hematometra - Leukorrhea
menstruation (Amenorrhoea, Oligomenorrhea, Menorrhagia, Menometrorrhagia, Metrorrhagia, Dysmenorrhea)
intercourse (Dyspareunia, Vaginismus) - Mittelschmerz
Atrophic vaginitis - Habitual abortion - Female infertility (Anovulation) - Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
|See also congenital conditions (Q50-Q56, 752)|