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Additional recommended knowledge
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) are characterised by an increase in airway resistance, shown by a decrease in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR; measured in spirometry) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 Second (FEV1). The Residual Volume, the volume of air left in the lungs following full expiration, is greatly increased in COPD, while the total lung volume (TLC)is normal, leading to the clinical sign of chest over-inflation in patients with severe disease. Many individuals with COPD present with "barrel chest" - a deformity of outward rib displacement due to chronic over-inflation of the lungs,also, in severe COPD, a flattening of the diaphragm can be seen on chest radiograph.
Examples of obstructive lung diseases include:
Restrictive Lung Disease
Restrictive Lung Diseases (RLD) are characterised by a loss of airway compliance, causing incomplete lung expansion (i.e. via increased lung 'stiffness'). This change manifests itself in a reduced Total Lung Capacity, Inspiratory Capacity and Vital Capacity.
In contrast to OPD, RLD values for Tidal Volume, Expiratory Reserve Volume, Functional Residual Capacity and Respiratory Volume are unchanged. The FEV1 for a patient with RLD will either be normal or slightly increased, and thus the FEV1/FVC ratio will also be normal or increased for a RLD patient.
Notable restrictive lung diseases include:
Parenchymal Lung Disease
The basic functional units of the lung, the alveoli, are referred to as the lung parenchyma. Diseases such as COPD are characterised by destruction of the alveoli and are therefore referred to as parenchymal lung diseases.
As can be seen from the overlap in categories, parenchymal diseases can be either restrictive, obstructive or both.
Notable parenchymal diseases include:
Vascular Lung Disease
Vascular lung disease refers to conditions which affect the pulmonary capillary vasculature. Alterations in the vasculature manifest in a general inability to exchange blood gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, in the vicinity of the vascular damage (other areas of the lung may be unaffected).
Notable vascular lung diseases include:
Infectious Respiratory Disease
Infectious Respiratory Diseases are, as the name suggests, typically caused by one of many infectious agents able to infect the mammalian respiratory system (for example the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae).
The clinical features and treatment options vary greatly between infectious lung disease sub-types as each type may be caused by a different infectious agent, with different pathogenesis and virulence. Features also vary between:
"Respiratory tumour" can refer to either neoplastic (cancerous) or non-neoplastic masses within the lungs or lung parenchyma.
Neoplastic respiratory tumours : Respiratory neoplasms are abnormal masses of tissue within the lungs or parenchyma whose cell of origin may or may not be lung tissue (many other neoplasms commonly metastasize to lung tissue). Respiratory neoplasms are most often malignant, although there are non-malignant neoplasms which can affect lung tissue.
Respiratory neoplasms include the following:
Non-neoplastic respiratory tumours : Tuberculosis cysts, other non-neoplastic masses.
Other Respiratory diseases
There are many other disorders that affect the lung and respiratory system. Auto-immune disorders such as vasculitis,( Wegener's Granulomatosis, Goodpasture's syndrome, for example) attack the blood vessels in the lung, causing pulmonary hemorrhage. Disorders in swallowing,or gastric refluxing can cause aspiration pneumonia.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Respiratory_disease". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.