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Idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases

Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases (IIDDs), sometimes known as Borderline forms of multiple sclerosis[1], is a collection of multiple sclerosis variants, sometimes considered different diseases[2].

The list of these diseases depends of the author, but usually are included:

As MS is an active field for research, the list is not closed or definitive. For example, some diseases like Susac's syndrome (MS has an important vascular component [5]) or autoimmune variants of peripheral neuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome could be included.

Some authors also think that primary progressive multiple sclerosis should be considered a different entity from standard MS[6] [7]. Others maintain the opposite[8].

Finally, also a dual classification of these diseases has been proposed, according to the shape of edges of the scars, in MS-like and ADEM-like[9]


  1. ^ (2001) "[Borderline forms of multiple sclerosis]" (in French). Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 157 (8-9 Pt 2): 929-34. PMID 11787357.
  2. ^ Wingerchuk DM, Lucchinetti CF (2007). "Comparative immunopathogenesis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis". Curr. Opin. Neurol. 20 (3): 343-50. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e3280be58d8. PMID 17495631.
  3. ^ Garrido C, Levy-Gomes A, Teixeira J, Temudo T (2004). "[Schilder's disease: two new cases and a review of the literature]" (in Spanish). Revista de neurologia 39 (8): 734-8. PMID 15514902.
  4. ^ Afifi AK, Bell WE, Menezes AH, Moore SA (1994). "Myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis (Schilder's disease): report of a case and review of the literature". J. Child Neurol. 9 (4): 398-403. PMID 7822732.
  5. ^ Minagar A, Jy W, Jimenez JJ, Alexander JS (2006). "Multiple sclerosis as a vascular disease". Neurol. Res. 28 (3): 230-5. PMID 16687046.
  6. ^ Vukusic S, Confavreux C (2003). "Primary and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis". J. Neurol. Sci. 206 (2): 153-5. PMID 12559503.
  7. ^ IDressel A, Kolb AK, Elitok E, Bitsch A, Bogumil T, Kitze B, Tumani H, Weber F (2006). "Interferon-beta1b treatment modulates cytokines in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis". Acta Neurol. Scand. 114 (6): 368-73. PMID 17083335.
  8. ^ Ebers GC (2004). "Natural history of primary progressive multiple sclerosis". Mult. Scler. 10 Suppl 1: S8-13; discussion S13-5. PMID 15218804.
  9. ^ Poser CM, Brinar VV (2004). "The nature of multiple sclerosis". Clinical neurology and neurosurgery 106 (3): 159-71. PMID 15177764.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Idiopathic_inflammatory_demyelinating_diseases". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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