Ophthalmoparesis Classification & external resources
367.52, 376.22, 378.55, 378.56, 378.72, 378.86, 378.9
Ophthalmoparesis is a physical finding in certain neurologic illnesses. It refers to paralysis of the extraocular muscles which are responsible for eye movements. It can refer to complete paralysis of the eyes, in which case it is synonymous with ophthalmoplegia. More usually, it refers to a partial paralysis, in contrast to the complete paralysis denoted by ophthalmoplegia.
Additional recommended knowledge
Ophthalmoparesis can involve any or all of the extraocular muscles, which include the superior recti, inferior recti, medial recti, lateral recti,
inferior oblique and superior oblique muscles.
It can also be classified by the directions of affected movements, e.g. "vertical ophthalmoparesis".
Ophthalmoparesis can result from disorders of various parts of the eye and nervous system:
The orbit of the eye, including mechanical restrictions of eye movement, as in Graves disease.
The muscle, as in progressive external ophthalmoplegia or Kearns-Sayre syndrome
The neuromuscular junction, as in myasthenia gravis.
The cranial nerves or their brainstem nuclei of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens.
White matter tracts in the brainstem, as in internuclear ophthalmoplegia, an occasional finding in multiple sclerosis.
Injury to supranuclear structures, as in progressive supranuclear palsy.
Very rarely, disorders of higher brain structures, including the parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex.
Thiamine deficiency can cause ophthalmoparesis in susceptible persons; this is part of the syndrome called Wernicke encephalopathy. The causal pathway by which this occurs is unknown. Intoxication with certain substances, such as phenytoin, can also cause ophthalmoparesis.
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment and prognosis depend on the underlying condition.
Pathology of the eye (primarily H00-H59, 360-379) Eyelid, lacrimal system and orbit eyelid: inflammation (Stye, Chalazion, Blepharitis) - Entropion - Ectropion - Lagophthalmos - Blepharochalasis - Ptosis - Blepharophimosis - Xanthelasma - Trichiasis
lacrimal system: Dacryoadenitis - Epiphora - Dacryocystitis
orbit: Exophthalmos - Enophthalmos Conjunctiva Conjunctivitis - Pterygium - Pinguecula - Subconjunctival hemorrhage Sclera and cornea Scleritis - Keratitis - Corneal ulcer - Snow blindness - Thygeson's superficial punctate keratopathy - Fuchs' dystrophy - Keratoconus - Keratoconjunctivitis sicca - Arc eye - Keratoconjunctivitis - Corneal neovascularization - Kayser-Fleischer ring - Arcus senilis - Band keratopathy Iris and ciliary body Iritis - Uveitis - Iridocyclitis - Hyphema - Persistent pupillary membrane - Iridodialysis - Synechia Lens Cataract - Aphakia - Ectopia lentis Choroid and retina Retinitis - Chorioretinitis - Choroideremia - Retinal detachment - Retinoschisis - Retinopathy (Hypertensive retinopathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Retinopathy of prematurity) - Macular degeneration - Retinitis pigmentosa - Retinal haemorrhage - Central serous retinopathy - Macular edema - Epiretinal membrane - Macular pucker Optic nerve and visual pathways Optic neuritis - Papilledema - Optic atrophy - Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy Ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction Paralytic strabismus: Ophthalmoparesis - Progressive external ophthalmoplegia - Palsy ( III, IV, VI) - Kearns-Sayre syndrome
Other strabismus: Esotropia/Exotropia - Hypertropia - Heterophoria (Esophoria, Exophoria) - Brown's syndrome - Duane syndrome
Other binocular: Conjugate gaze palsy - Convergence insufficiency - Internuclear ophthalmoplegia - One and a half syndrome
Refractive error: Hyperopia/Myopia - Astigmatism - Anisometropia/Aniseikonia - Presbyopia Visual disturbances and blindness Amblyopia - Leber's congenital amaurosis - Subjective (Asthenopia, Hemeralopia, Photophobia, Scintillating scotoma) - Diplopia - Scotoma - Anopsia (Binasal hemianopsia, Bitemporal hemianopsia, Homonymous hemianopsia, Quadrantanopia) - Color blindness ( Achromatopsia) - Nyctalopia - Blindness/Low vision Pupil Anisocoria - Argyll Robertson pupil - Marcus Gunn pupil/Marcus Gunn phenomenon - Adie syndrome Infectious diseases Trachoma - Onchocerciasis Other Nystagmus - Miosis - Mydriasis - Glaucoma - Ocular hypertension - Floater - Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy - Red eye - Keratomycosis - Xerophthalmia - Aniridia See also congenital