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Classification & external resources
Patient with bilateral exophthalmos, as well as highly asymmetrical eye alignment.
ICD-10 H05.2
ICD-9 376.2-376.3
DiseasesDB 18612
MedlinePlus 003033
eMedicine oph/616 

Exophthalmos is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit. Exophthalmos can be either bilateral (as is often seen in Grave's Disease) or unilateral (as is often seen in an orbital tumor). Measurement of the degree of exophthalmos is performed using an exophthalmometer. Complete or partial dislocation from the orbit is also possible from trauma or swelling of surrounding tissue resulting from trauma.

In the case of Graves Disease, the displacement of the eye is due to abnormal connective tissue deposition in the orbit and extraocular muscles which can be visualized by CT or MRI.[1]

If left untreated, exophthalmos can causes the eye lids to fail to close during sleep leading to corneal damage. The process that is causing the displacement of the eye may also compress the optic nerve or ophthalmic artery leading to blindness.


Exophthalmos vs. proptosis

Some sources define "exophthalmos" as a protrusion of the globe greater than 18 mm and "proptosis" as a protusion equal to or less than 18 mm. (Epstein et al, 2003). Others define "exophthalmos" as protusion secondary to endocrine dysfunction and "proptosis" as any non-endocrine-mediated protusion [1].

Exophthalmos in dogs


Main article: Eye proptosis

Exophthalmos is commonly found in dogs. It is a normal condition in brachycephalic (short nosed) dog breeds because of the shallow orbit. However, it can lead to keratitis secondary to exposure of the cornea. Exophthalmos is commonly seen in the Pug, Boston Terrier, Pekingese, and Shih Tzu.

See also


  1. ^ Owen Epstein, David Perkin, John Cookson, David P de Bono (April 2003). Clinical examination, 3rd edition, St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3229-5. 

lacrimal system: Dacryoadenitis - Epiphora - Dacryocystitis

orbit: Exophthalmos - Enophthalmos
ConjunctivaConjunctivitis - Pterygium - Pinguecula - Subconjunctival hemorrhage
Sclera and corneaScleritis - Keratitis - Corneal ulcer - Snow blindness - Thygeson's superficial punctate keratopathy - Fuchs' dystrophy - Keratoconus - Keratoconjunctivitis sicca - Arc eye - Keratoconjunctivitis - Corneal neovascularization - Kayser-Fleischer ring - Arcus senilis - Band keratopathy
Iris and ciliary bodyIritis - Uveitis - Iridocyclitis - Hyphema - Persistent pupillary membrane - Iridodialysis - Synechia
LensCataract - Aphakia - Ectopia lentis
Choroid and retinaRetinitis - Chorioretinitis - Choroideremia - Retinal detachment - Retinoschisis - Retinopathy (Hypertensive retinopathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Retinopathy of prematurity) - Macular degeneration - Retinitis pigmentosa - Retinal haemorrhage - Central serous retinopathy - Macular edema - Epiretinal membrane - Macular pucker
Optic nerve and visual pathwaysOptic neuritis - Papilledema - Optic atrophy - Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy
Ocular muscles,
binocular movement,
accommodation and refraction
Paralytic strabismus: Ophthalmoparesis - Progressive external ophthalmoplegia - Palsy (III, IV, VI) - Kearns-Sayre syndrome

Other strabismus: Esotropia/Exotropia - Hypertropia - Heterophoria (Esophoria, Exophoria) - Brown's syndrome - Duane syndrome
Other binocular: Conjugate gaze palsy - Convergence insufficiency - Internuclear ophthalmoplegia - One and a half syndrome

Refractive error: Hyperopia/Myopia - Astigmatism - Anisometropia/Aniseikonia - Presbyopia
Visual disturbances and blindnessAmblyopia - Leber's congenital amaurosis - Subjective (Asthenopia, Hemeralopia, Photophobia, Scintillating scotoma) - Diplopia - Scotoma - Anopsia (Binasal hemianopsia, Bitemporal hemianopsia, Homonymous hemianopsia, Quadrantanopia) - Color blindness (Achromatopsia) - Nyctalopia - Blindness/Low vision
PupilAnisocoria - Argyll Robertson pupil - Marcus Gunn pupil/Marcus Gunn phenomenon - Adie syndrome
Infectious diseasesTrachoma - Onchocerciasis
OtherNystagmus - Miosis - Mydriasis - Glaucoma - Ocular hypertension - Floater - Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy - Red eye - Keratomycosis - Xerophthalmia - Aniridia
See also congenital
  This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Exophthalmos". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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