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Motor coordination



Neuropsychology


Topics

Brain-computer interfacesBrain damage
Brain regions • Clinical neuropsychology
Cognitive neuroscience • Human brain
Neuroanatomy • Neurophysiology
Phrenology • Common misconceptions

Brain functions

arousal • attention
consciousness • decision making
executive functions • language
learning • memory
motor coordination • perception
planning • problem solving
thought

People

Arthur L. Benton• David Bohm
António DamásioKenneth Heilman
Phineas Gage • Norman Geschwind
Elkhonon Goldberg • Donald Hebb
Alexander Luria • Muriel D. Lezak •
Brenda MilnerKarl Pribram
Oliver SacksRoger Sperry• H.M.

Tests

Bender-Gestalt Test
Benton Visual Retention Test
Clinical Dementia Rating
Continuous Performance Task
Glasgow Coma Scale
Hayling and Brixton tests
Lexical decision task
Mini-mental state examination
Stroop effect
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wisconsin card sorting task

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Gross motor coordination addresses the gross motor skills: walking, running, climbing, jumping, crawling, lifting one's head, sitting up, etc.

Fine motor coordination addresses the fine motor skills, such as the abilities to manipulate small objects using small muscle movements of the fingers, usually in coordination with vision. A notable type of fine coordination is involved in the usage of vocal cords and other organs for producing speech or singing.

Elements of coordination include:

  • Spatial awareness
  • Timing
  • Balance
  • Combining several movements into a sequence (including motion learning, planning and memorizing)

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Elements of nervous system involved in motor coordination

  • The Red nucleus is mainly involved in motor coordination of the muscles of the shoulder and upper arm, but it has some control over the lower arm and hand as well.
  • The Corticospinal tract contains a large number of motor pathways
  • The Hypoglossal nucleus and the hypoglossal nerve control the tongue
  • Long-Term Memory if we have memorized the particular movement, as in dancing.
  • Working Memory if it has become a habit, possibly connected with LTM.

Types of coordination

  • Sensory–motor coordination
    • Visual–motor copordination
  • Left–right coordination
  • Flexor-extensor alternation and balance

Sensory–motor coordination

Integration of the sensory perception and motor output occurs in the cerebellum. The cerebellum is linked by many neural pathways with the motor cortex—which sends information to the muscles causing them to move—and the spinocerebellar tract—which provides feedback on the position of the body in space (proprioception). The cerebellum integrates these pathways, using the constant feedback on body position to fine-tune motor movements.

Left–right coordination

The term left–right coordination has two major meanings.

The first one refers to the rhythmic alternating left and right limb movement during, e.g., the locomotion in mammals or swimming of aquatic vertebrates. The basic neuronal circuits that generate this type of coordinated activity is located in the spinal cord. [1]

The second one one refers to various coordinated activities with left and right hands, e.g., in playing the piano, drumming, semaphore flag signalling, etc.

See also

References

  1. ^ Butt S.J., Lebret J.M., Kiehn O. "Organization of left-right coordination in the mammalian locomotor network", Brain Res. Brain. Res. Rev. 2002 Oct;40(1-3):107-17 PubMed
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Motor_coordination". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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