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Anti-cardiolipin antibodies



  Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases including syphilis[1], antiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Behçet's syndrome[2], idiopathic spontaneous abortion,[3] and systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE).[4] They are a form of anti-mitochondrial antibody. In SLE, The anti-DNA antibodies and anti-cardiolipin act independently.[5] In rheumatoid arthritis[6] w/systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)[7] these antibodies may tie two conditions together.

Additional recommended knowledge

Anti-cardiolipin antibodies come can be classified in two ways.

  • As IgM, IgG or IgA
  • As β2-glycoprotein dependent or independent
    • In autoimmune disease ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein dependent
    • syphilis ACA[1] are beta-2 glycoprotein independent and can be assayed using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test

Apolipoprotein H involvement

β2-glycoprotein I has been identified as Apolipoprotein H and is required for the recognition of ACA in autoimmune disease.[8] Only a subset of autoimmune anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind Apo-H, these anti-apolipoprotein antibodies are associated with increased thrombosis.

References

  1. ^ a b Tringali GR, Julian AJ, Halbert WM (1969). "Effect of 2-mercaptoethanol treatment on anticardiolipin reactivity in sera from syphilitics and false positive reactors". The British journal of venereal diseases 45 (3): 202-4. PMID 5346419.
  2. ^ Hull RG, Harris EN, Gharavi AE, et al (1984). "Anticardiolipin antibodies: occurrence in Behçet's syndrome". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 43 (5): 746-8. PMID 6497467.
  3. ^ Petri M, Golbus M, Anderson R, Whiting-O'Keefe Q, Corash L, Hellmann D (1987). "Antinuclear antibody, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin antibody in women with idiopathic habitual abortion. A controlled, prospective study of forty-four women". Arthritis Rheum. 30 (6): 601-6. PMID 3111489.
  4. ^ Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Boey ML, et al (1983). "Anticardiolipin antibodies: detection by radioimmunoassay and association with thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus". Lancet 2 (8361): 1211-4. PMID 6139567.
  5. ^ Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Loizou S, et al (1985). "Crossreactivity of antiphospholipid antibodies". Journal of clinical & laboratory immunology 16 (1): 1-6. PMID 3981615.
  6. ^ Keane A, Woods R, Dowding V, Roden D, Barry C (1987). "Anticardiolipin antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis". Br. J. Rheumatol. 26 (5): 346-50. PMID 3664159.
  7. ^ Malia RG, Greaves M, Rowlands LM, et al (1988). "Anticardiolipin antibodies in systemic sclerosis: immunological and clinical associations". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 73 (3): 456-60. PMID 2974767.
  8. ^ McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA (1990). "Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen that includes a lipid-binding inhibitor of coagulation: beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (11): 4120-4. PMID 2349221.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Anti-cardiolipin_antibodies". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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