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In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, "instrument, tool") is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. Usually there is a main tissue and sporadic tissues. The main tissue is the one that is unique for the specific organ. For example, main tissue in the heart is the myocardium, while sporadic are the nervous, blood, connective etc.
Common animal (including human) organs include the heart, lungs, brain, eye, stomach, spleen, bones, pancreas, kidneys, liver, intestines, skin (the largest human organ), uterus, and bladder. Animal organs inside the body are often referred to as internal organs. The internal organs collectively are often called viscera, the plural of the rarely-used term viscus.
The vegetative organs are essential for maintaining the life of a plant (they preform the vital functions, such as photosynthesis), while the reproductive organs are essential in reproduction. But, if there is asexual vegetative reproduction, the vegetative organs are those which create the new generation of plants (see clonal colony).
A group of related organs is an organ system. Organs within a system may be related in any number of ways, but relationships of function are most commonly used. For example the urinary system comprises organs that work together to produce, store, and carry urine.
The functions of organ systems often share significant overlap. For instance, the nervous and endocrine system both operate via a shared organ, the hypothalamus. For this reason, the two systems are combined and studied as the neuroendocrine system. The same is true for the musculoskeletal system, which involves the relationship between the muscular the skeletal system and the digestive system.
List of major human organ systems
There are typically considered to be eleven major organ systems of the human body.
Organs of the human body by region
Head and neck
Pelvis and perineum
Upper limbs/Lower limbs
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Organ_(anatomy)". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|