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Signs and symptoms
Nephritic syndrome is characterized by;
and variable renal insufficiency, with;
The main features are hypertension and RBC casts. The proteinuria in nephritic syndrome is not usually severe, but may occasionally be heavy enough to be in the range usually found in nephrotic syndrome.
Mnemonic: PHAROH = Proteinuria, Hematuria, Azotemia, RBC casts, Oliguria, Hypertension
Nephritic syndrome is not a specific diagnosis. It is a clinical syndrome and characterized by the above signs.
An anti-streptolysin O titre (or ASOT) is typically done to test for exposure to streptococci.
The exact pathophysiology is dependent on the specific diagnosis. However, the common features are an inflammation of the glomeruli, leading to salt and water retention and a reduction in the kidney function.
The two classic diagnoses of nephritic syndrome are:
Nephritic syndrome causes are usually grouped into 'focal proliferative' and 'diffuse proliferative' on the basis of histology (obtained by a renal biopsy).
Treatment is dependent on the underlying etiology (cause) and the degree of kidney dysfunction.
Prognosis depends on the underlying etiology.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Nephritic_syndrome". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|