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Toxicant



Part of a series on
Toxicology and poison
Toxicology (Forensic) - Toxinology
History of poison
(ICD-10 T36-T65, ICD-9 960-989)
Concepts
Poison - Venom - Toxicant - Antidote
Acceptable daily intake - Acute toxicity
Bioaccumulation - Biomagnification
Fixed Dose Procedure - LD50 - Lethal dose
Toxic capacity - Toxicity Class
Toxins and venoms
Neurotoxin - Necrotoxin - Hemotoxin
Mycotoxin - Aflatoxin - Phototoxin
List of fictional toxins
Incidents
Bradford - Minamata - Niigata
Alexander Litvinenko - Bhopal
2007 pet food recalls
List of poisonings
Poisoning types
Elements
Toxic metal (Lead - Mercury - Cadmium - Antimony - Arsenic - Beryllium - Iron - Thallium) - Fluoride - Oxygen
Seafood
Shellfish (Paralytic - Diarrheal - Neurologic
Amnesic)
- Ciguatera - Scombroid
Tetrodotoxin
Other substances
Pesticide - Organophosphate - Food
Nicotine - Theobromine - Carbon monoxide - Vitamin - Medicines
Living organisms
Mushrooms - Plants - Animals
Related topics
Hazard symbol - Carcinogen
Mutagen - List of Extremely Hazardous Substances - Biological warfare

A toxicant is a chemical compound that has an effect on organisms. Toxicants are typically introduced into the environment by human activity.The effects depend on the concentration of the compound. Generally three concentration ranges can be delineated of all chemical compounds

  • too little: the metabolic behaviour deviates more from the natural behaviour for decreasing concentrations
  • enough: the metabolic behaviour is rather insensitive to changes in the concentration
  • too much: the metabolic behaviour deviates more from the natural behaviour for increasing concentrations

Additional recommended knowledge

The effect of toxicants can be quantified on the basis of the concentration inside the organism. The Dynamic Energy Budget theory can be used to specify the mode of action of the compound for the individual organism under study: one or more parameters of the DEB model change as function of the internal concentration.

Some toxicants are specifically developed to fight pests,the so-called pesticides such as

  • insecticides to kill insects (or protect plants as some would prefer to stress)
  • herbicides to kill "unwanted" weeds,
  • food conservation products to kill micro-organisms that feast on our food

Many other toxicants are unwanted by-products of some production process, or accidental spoils.

 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Toxicant". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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