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Phototoxins are toxins that can cause allergic reactions in particularly susceptible individuals and which can cause dangerous photosensitivity in a much broader range of subjects.
Additional recommended knowledge
Phototoxins are common in:
Ingested medications may cause systemic photosensitivity and topically applied medications, cosmetics and essential oils may lead to local (or perhaps systemic) photosenstivity. Curiously and ironically, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) found in some sunscreens can also cause photosensitivity.
Upon exposure to light, notably light containing ultraviolet radiation, discolouration of the skin (whether as inflammation, lightening or darkening) or rashes may result. In extreme cases, blistering may also occur.
The marigold plant produces the phototoxin alpha-terthienyl, which functions as a nematicide. When exposed to near ultraviolet light, such as in sunlight, alpha-terthienyl generates the toxic singlet oxygen. Alpha-terthienyl results in damage to the respiratory, digestive and nervous system of larvae, resulting in 100% death rates in concentrations of 33 ppb. This makes it an interesting natural insecticide.
Rose bengal and other singlet oxygen generating phototoxins are also used in synthetic organic chemistry. They have also found use in photodynamic therapy, where the toxin is activated by intense light to destroy cancer cells.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Phototoxin". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|