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Thanatophoric dysplasia

Thanatophoric dysplasia
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 Q77.1
OMIM 187600
DiseasesDB 29403
eMedicine ped/2233 
MeSH D013796

Thanatophoric dysplasia is a severe inherited skeletal disorder characterized by extremely short limbs and folds of extra skin on the arms and legs.



Infants with this condition have disproportionately short arms and legs with extra folds of skin. Other signs of the disorder include a narrow chest, small ribs, underdeveloped lungs, and an enlarged head with a large forehead and prominent, wide-spaced eyes.


It can be associated with missense mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor-3.[1][2]


Infants with type 1 thanatophoric dysplasia also have curved thigh bones and flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly).

An unusual head shape called craniosynostosis ("cloverleaf skull") is seen with type 2 thanatophoric dysplasia.[3]


The term thanatophoric is Greek for "death bearing". Infants with this condition are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth from respiratory failure; however, some children have survived into childhood with significant medical help. These children are severely mentally handicapped due to a variety of brain abnormalities and have difficulty breathing on their own.


This condition affects about 1 in 60,000 births.[4]


  1. ^ Bonaventure J, Gibbs L, Horne WC, Baron R (2007). "The localization of FGFR3 mutations causing thanatophoric dysplasia type I differentially affects phosphorylation, processing and ubiquitylation of the receptor". FEBS J. 274 (12): 3078–93. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2007.05835.x. PMID 17509076.
  2. ^ Lievens PM, Liboi E (2003). "The thanatophoric dysplasia type II mutation hampers complete maturation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) from the endoplasmic reticulum". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (19): 17344–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M212710200. PMID 12624096.
  3. ^ Norman AM, Rimmer S, Landy S, Donnai D (1992). "Thanatophoric dysplasia of the straight-bone type (type 2)". Clin. Dysmorphol. 1 (2): 115–20. PMID 1345514.
  4. ^ Vajo Z, Francomano CA, Wilkin DJ (2000). "The molecular and genetic basis of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 disorders: the achondroplasia family of skeletal dysplasias, Muenke craniosynostosis, and Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans". Endocr. Rev. 21 (1): 23–39. PMID 10696568.

feet (Club foot, Flat feet, Pes cavus)

head, face, spine and chest: skull, face and jaw (Dolichocephaly, Plagiocephaly) - Scoliosis - chest (Pectus excavatum, Pectus carinatum)

Polydactyly/Syndactyly (Webbed toes)

reduction deficits (Ectrodactyly, Amelia, Phocomelia)

upper limb (Cleidocranial dysostosis, Madelung's deformity, Sprengel's deformity)

knee (Genu valgum, Genu varum)

Skull and face bonesCraniosynostosis (Scaphocephaly) - Trigonocephaly - Oxycephaly - Crouzon syndrome - Hypertelorism - Macrocephaly - Treacher Collins syndrome - Platybasia
Spine and bony thoraxKlippel-Feil syndrome - Spondylolisthesis - Cervical rib - Bifid rib
Osteochondrodysplasiagrowth of tubular bones and spine: Achondrogenesis - Thanatophoric dysplasia - Short rib-polydactyly syndrome - Chondrodysplasia punctata (Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, Conradi-Hünermann syndrome), Achondroplasia (Hypochondroplasia, Osteosclerosis congenita) - Ellis-van Creveld syndrome - Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita
Osteogenesis imperfecta - McCune-Albright syndrome - Osteopetrosis - Metaphyseal dysplasia - Hereditary multiple exostoses - Osteopoikilosis - Chondrodystrophy - Osteodystrophy
Otherabdominal wall (Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, Omphalocele, Gastroschisis, Prune belly syndrome) - Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
See also non-congenital conditions (M, 710-739)
  This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Thanatophoric_dysplasia". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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