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Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Salbutamol sulphate is usually given by the inhaled route for direct effect on bronchial smooth muscle. This is usually achieved through a metered dose inhaler (MDI), nebuliser or other proprietary delivery devices (e.g. Rotahaler or Autohaler). In these forms of delivery, the maximal effect of Salbutamol can take place within five to twenty minutes of dosing, though some relief is immediately seen. Salbutamol can also be given orally or intravenously. However, some asthmatics may not respond to these medications as they will not have the required DNA base sequence in a specific gene.
Salbutamol became available in the United Kingdom in 1969 and in the United States in 1980 under the trade name Ventolin.
Additional recommended knowledge
Salbutamol is specifically indicated in the following conditions:
As a β2-agonist, salbutamol also finds use in obstetrics. Intravenous salbutamol can be used as a tocolytic to relax the uterine smooth muscle to delay premature labour. Whilst preferred over agents such as atosiban and ritodrine, its role has largely been replaced by the calcium-channel blocker nifedipine which is more effective, better tolerated and orally administered.
Diet and bodybuilding use
Salbutamol is taken by some as an alternative to Clenbuterol for purposes of fat burning.
Mode of action
As with other β2-adrenergic receptor agonists, salbutamol binds to β2-adrenergic receptors with a higher affinity than β1-receptors. In the airway, activation of β2-receptors results in relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle resulting in a widening of the airway (bronchodilation). Inhaled salbutamol sulfate has a rapid onset of action, providing relief within five to fifteen minutes of administration.
In tocolysis, the activation of β2-receptors results in relaxation of uterine smooth muscle, thus delaying labour.
While salbutamol is well-tolerated, particularly when compared with previous therapies such as theophylline, like all medications there exists the potential for adverse drug reactions to occur - especially when in high doses, or when taken orally or intravenously.
Common adverse effects include: tremor, palpitations and headache. (Rossi, 2004)
Infrequent adverse effects include: tachycardia, muscle cramps, agitation, hypokalemia, tinnitus, hyperactivity in children, and insomnia.
The (S) enantiomer of salbutamol can inhibit the anti-inflammatory effect of steroids prescribed to treat asthma. However, the (R) enantiomer can stimulate the steroid's effect and the overall effect of the two isomers is unclear.
Salbutamol is sold under the brand names Aerolin, Airomir, Asthalin, Asthavent, Asmol, Butahale,Buventol, ProAir, Proventil, Salamol, Sultanol, Ventolin, and Volmax.
Levalbuterol, the R-enantiomer of salbutamol, is sold as Xopenex.
Ban of CFC-containing albuterol inhalers
U.S. regulators have announced that albuterol inhalers containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) will be banned in the United States beginning in 2009. This type of asthma inhaler had previously been given "essential use" status, exempting it from a national CFC-production ban. However, GlaxoSmithKline, Ivax Corp., and other manufacturers are expected to produce adequate supplies of alternative inhalers by 2009 and will offer discounts for those who cannot afford the newer versions, which cost about $20 more. There are many asthma patients, however, that feel the switch to non-CFC based inhalers have greatly limited their life potential, and any real ability to effectively manage a serious asthma attack. Because the CFC based inhalers were made for emegency "rescue" breathing, and worked quite well, the newer HFA inhalers are not being well received by those that use them. In fact, there are some that feel the removal of the only CFC based albuterol inhaler, which happens to also be the only generic option, is a move by the pharmaceutical companies to reap higher profits.
Carter Vanderbilt Cooper
Categories: Asthma | Beta-adrenergic agonists | Bronchodilators | Phenethylamines
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Salbutamol". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|