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Nicotinamide



Nicotinamide
IUPAC name pyridine-3-carboxamide
Other names 3-pyridinecarboxamide
niacinamide
nicotinamide
nicotinic acid amide
Vitamin PP
Identifiers
CAS number 98-92-0
PubChem 7847104
EINECS number 202-713-4
SMILES NC(=O)c1cccnc1
InChI InChI=1/C6H6N2O/c7-6(9)5-2-1-3-8-4-5/h1-4H,(H2,7,9)/f/h7H2
Properties
Molecular formula C6H6N2O
Molar mass 122.12
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide and nicotinic acid amide, is the amide of niacin (vitamin B(3)) which has the chemical formula C6H6N2O. Niacinamide is a derivative of vitamin B-3 that can be used for the treatment of arthritis by aiding the body in its production of cartilage. Nicotinamide is a water-soluble component of the vitamin B complex group. In cells, nicotinamide is incorporated into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). NAD and NADP function as coenzymes in a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions.

Additional recommended knowledge

Nicotinamide has demonstrated anti-inflammatory actions which may be of benefit in patients with inflammatory acne vulgaris, including but not limited to, suppression of antigen induced-lymphocytic transformation and inhibition of 3'-5' cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Nicotinamide has demonstrated the ability to block the inflammatory actions of iodides known to precipitate or exacerbate inflammatory acne.

Animal studies show that nicotinamide has anxiolytic properties. It works in a way similar to benzodiazepines.[1] There are many anecdotal reports suggesting this role of niacinamide in humans as well,[2] and in fact, one study found that it is effective in getting through withdrawal from benzodiazepines.[3] Niacin, as opposed to nicotinamide, does not show this kind of activity (or, at least, not to such an extent).

Nicotinamide lacks the vasodilator, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and hypolipemic actions of nicotinic acid or niacin. As such nicotinamide has not been shown to produce the flushing, itching and burning sensations of the skin as is commonly seen when large doses of niacin are administered orally. Also, nicotinamide does not produce liver toxicity in such doses.[4] In overall, it rarely causes side effects, and because of that, nicotinamide is often added to dietary supplements instead of niacin.

References

  1. ^ Mohler H, Polc P, Cumin R, et al. Niacinamide is a brain constituent with benzodiazepine-like actions.
  2. ^ Prousky JE. Niacinamide’s potential role in alleviating anxiety with its benzodiazepine-like properties: a case report.
  3. ^ Vescovi PP, et al. Nicotinic acid effectiveness in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
  4. ^ Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc; 2001.

See also

 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Nicotinamide". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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