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Polyunsaturated fatty acid



The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are fatty acids which contains more than one double bond.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Methylene Interrupted Polyenes

These fatty acids have 2 or more cis double bonds which are separated from each other by a single methylene group. (This form is also sometimes called a divinylmethane pattern.) [1]

Methylene- interrupted double bonds
-C-C=C-C-C=C-

The essential fatty acids comprise the omega-3 and -6 methylene-interrupted fatty acids. See more at Essential fatty acids—Nomenclature

Omega-3

Common name Lipid name Chemical name
Omega-3 fatty acids
16:3 (n-3) all-cis 7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic acid
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) 18:3 (n-3) all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
Stearidonic acid 18:4 (n-3) all-cis-6,9,12,15,-octadecatetraenoic acid
Eicosatetraenoic acid 20:4 (n-3) all-cis-8,11,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 20:5 (n-3) all-cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid
Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, Clupanodonic acid) 22:5 (n-3) all-cis-7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6 (n-3) all-cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid
  24:5 (n-3) all-cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid
Nisinic acid 24:6 (n-3) all-cis-6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosenoic acid

Omega-6

Common name Lipid name Chemical name
Omega-6 fatty acids
Linoleic acid 18:2 (n-6) all-cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid
Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) 18:3 (n-6) all-cis-6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid
Eicosadienoic acid 20:2 (n-6) all-cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid
Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) 20:3 (n-6) all-cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid
Arachidonic acid (AA) 20:4 (n-6) all-cis-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid
Docosadienoic acid 22:2 (n-6) all-cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid
Adrenic acid 22:4 (n-6) all-cis-7,10,13,16-docosatetraenoic acid
Docosapentaenoic acid (Osbond acid) 22:5 (n-6) all-cis-4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic acid

Omega-9

Common name Lipid name Chemical name
Omega-9 fatty acids, mono- and polysaturated
Oleic acid 18:1 (n-9) cis-9-octadecenoic acid
Eicosenoic acid 20:1 (n-9) cis-11-eicosenoic acid
Mead acid 20:3 (n-9) all-cis-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid
Erucic acid 22:1 (n-9) cis-13-docosenoic acid
Nervonic acid 24:1 (n-9) cis-15-tetracosenoic acid
Monounsaturated

Conjugated fatty acids

Conjugated double bonds
-C=C-C=C-
Common name Lipid name Chemical name
Conjugated fatty acids  have two or more conjugated double bonds
Conjugated Linoleic Acids (two conjugated double bonds)
Rumenic acid 18:2 (n-7) 9Z,11E-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid
  18:2 (n-6) 10E,12Z-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid
Conjugated Linolenic Acids (three conjugated double bonds)
α-Calendic acid 18:3 (n-6) 8E,10E,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid
β-Calendic acid 18:3 (n-6) 8E,10E,12E-octadecatrienoic acid
Jacaric acid 18:3 (n-6) 8E,10Z,12E-octadecatrienoic acid
α-Eleostearic acid 18:3 (n-5) 9E,11E,13Z-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid
β-Eleostearic acid 18:3 (n-5) 9E,11E,13E-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid
Catalpic acid 18:3 (n-5) 9Z,11Z,13E-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid
Punicic acid 18:3 (n-5) 9E,11Z,13E-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid
Other
Rumelenic acid 18:3 (n-3) 9E,11Z,15E-octadeca-9,11,15-trienoic acid
α-Parinaric acid 18:4 (n-3) 9E,11Z,13Z,15E-octadeca-9,11,13,15-trienoic acid
β-Parinaric acid 18:4 (n-3) all trans-octadeca-9,11,13,15-trienoic acid
Bosseopentaenoic acid 20:5 (n-6) 5Z,8Z,10E,12E,14Z-eicosanoic acid

Other Polyunsaturates

Common name Lipid name Chemical name
Pinolenic acid 18:3 (n-6) (5Z,9Z,12Z)-octadeca-5,9,12-trienoic acid
Podocarpic acid 20:3 (n-6) (5Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosa-5,11,14-trienoic acid

Function and effects

The biological effects of the ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are largely mediated by their mutual interactions, see Essential fatty acid interactions for detail.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Baggott, James (1997). The divinylmethane pattern in fatty acids. Salt Lake City, UT: Knowledge Weavers. 

General References

  • Cyberlipid. Polyenoic Fatty Acids. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  • Gunstone, Frank D. Lipid Glossary 2. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  • Adlof, R. O. and Gunstone, F. D. (2003-9-17). Common (non-systematic) Names for Fatty Acids. Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  • Heinz (1983). "Similarities and Differences in Lipid Metabolism of Chloroplasts Isolated from 18:3 and 16:3 Plants". Plant Physiol 72 (2): 273-279. PMID 16662992.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Polyunsaturated_fatty_acid". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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