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Central obesity

Central obesity
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 E66
ICD-9 278


Central obesity (or "apple-shaped" or "masculine" obesity) occurs when the main deposits of body fat are localised around the abdomen and the upper body. Central obesity is correlated with visceral fat.



Central obesity is common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome, and it is associated with a statistically higher risk of heart disease, hypertension, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus type 2.

Central obesity can also be a feature of lipodystrophies, a group of diseases which is either inherited, or due to secondary causes (often protease inhibitors, a group of medications against AIDS). Central obesity is one of the primary symptoms of Cushing's syndrome.

There is little scientific evidence that beer drinkers are more prone to abdominal obesity, despite it being known colloquially as beer belly, beer gut, or pot belly.


Central obesity is diagnosed by measuring the waist-hip ratio. When this exceeds 1.0 in men or 0.9 in women, central obesity can be diagnosed.


Weight loss is the main intervention against central obesity when this is considered disfiguring or when it puts one at a risk for the above mentioned diseases. Adjunctive therapies are the use of orlistat or sibutramine. In the presence of diabetes mellitus type 2, the physician might prefer to prescribe metformin and thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone or pioglitazone) as anti-diabetic drugs rather than sulfonylurea derivatives.

Muffin Top

Main article: Muffin Top


Muffin-top (or muffin-top girl) is a generally pejorative, slang term used for a person, usually female, whose flabby midsection spills over the waistline of his or her pants in a manner that resembles the top of a muffin spilling over its paper casing. This generally occurs when an individual wears low-rise, hip-hugger pants, or midriff-baring tops that are too small.

In an attempt to avoid this, manufacturers have re-introduced mid-rise jeans, which come up higher on the waist and eliminate the "muffin-top". Manufacturers have also introduced new styles of high-rise jeans.[1] However, the muffin-top is not exclusive to low-rise jeans. Any jeans that are too tight at the waist can cause a muffin-top. In addition, low-rise jeans of the right size usually will not create a muffin-top, but they may slip down.

Muffin-top originated as Australian slang in mid-2003,[2] but has since become popular in other English-speaking countries. It may have been first popularized by the Australian television show Kath & Kim. Australia's Macquarie Dictionary named "muffin-top" the word of the year in 2006;[3] the American Dialect Society named it one of the "most creative" new terms that same year.[4]

In the sitcom 30 Rock, the character of Jenna Maroney has a hit dance song called "Muffin-top".

An additional derivation is "Split Top Muffin" to describe seeing the "muffin-top" from behind with the jeans so low as to expose the top of the gluteal cleft.

Love Handles

Main article: Love handles

"Love handles" is a colloquial or slang term for a layer of fat that is deposited around a person's midsection, especially visible on the sides over the abdominal external oblique muscle. They are called "love handles" because they provide a soft place to rest one's hand while one's arm is around a person, or perhaps because they can serve as places to hold on while in the throes of passion.

Love handles are more common in men than women, as the midsection is one of the first regions where fat is stored in the male body. (Women tend to accumulate fat around the hips and thighs). Love handles generally become more pronounced as a person ages and approaches middle age, due to a lower activity level.

Both men and women tend to be image-conscious regarding love handles, sometimes leading to a negative body image. While many products are marketed for eliminating love handles, it is generally agreed that spot reduction is impossible, and that the best way to reduce them is to lose fat by being more active (through activities such as cardiovascular exercise and weight training) and consuming fewer calories.

Love handles are also colloquially called a spare tire due to the enlarged tire-like shape around the midsection

See also


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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Central_obesity". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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