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Angiotensin




Angiotensinogen (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 8)
Space-filling models of angiotensin I (left) and II (right). From PDB 1N9U and 1N9V.
Identifiers
Symbol(s) AGT; ANHU; SERPINA8
External IDs OMIM: 106150 MGI: 87963 Homologene: 14
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data

Orthologs
Human Mouse
Entrez 183 11606
Ensembl ENSG00000135744 ENSMUSG00000031980
Uniprot P01019 Q3UTR7
Refseq NM_000029 (mRNA)
NP_000020 (protein)
NM_007428 (mRNA)
NP_031454 (protein)
Location Chr 1: 228.9 - 228.92 Mb Chr 8: 127.44 - 127.46 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. It is a powerful dipsogen. It is derived from the precursor molecule angiotensinogen, a serum globulin produced in the liver. It plays an important role in the renin-angiotensin system. Angiotensin was first isolated at the Cleveland Clinic.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Precursor, and types of angiotensin

Angiotensinogen

Angiotensinogen is an α-2-globulin that is produced constitutively and released into the circulation mainly by the liver. It is a member of the serpin family, although it is not known to inhibit other enzymes, unlike most serpins. Plasma angiotensinogen levels are increased by plasma corticosteroid, estrogen, thyroid hormone, and angiotensin II levels.

Angiotensinogen consist of 453 amino acid residues.

Angiotensin I

Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe-His-Leu

 

Angiotensin I (CAS# 11128-99-7) is formed by the action of renin on angiotensinogen. Renin is produced in the kidneys in response to both decreased intra-renal blood pressure at the juxtaglomerular cells, or decreased delivery of Na+ and Cl- to the macula densa. If more Na+ is sensed, renin release is decreased.

Renin cleaves the peptide bond between the leucine (Leu) and valine (Val) residues on angiotensinogen, creating the ten amino acid peptide (des-Asp) angiotensin I (CAS# 9041-90-1).

Angiotensin I appears to have no biological activity and exists solely as a precursor to angiotensin II.

Angiotensin II

Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe | His-Leu

Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II through removal of two terminal residues by the enzyme Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, or kinase), which is found predominantly in the capillaries of the lung.[1] ACE is actually found all over the body, but has its highest density in the lung due to the high density of capillary beds there. Angiotensin II acts as an endocrine, autocrine/ paracrine, and intracrine hormone.

ACE is a target for inactivation by ACE inhibitor drugs, which decrease the rate of angiotensin II production. Angiotensin II increases blood pressure by stimulating the Gq protein in vascular smooth muscle cells (which in turn activates contraction by an IP3-dependent mechanism). ACE inhibitor drugs are major drugs against hypertension.

Other cleavage products of ACE, 7 or 9 amino acids long, are also known; they have differential affinity for angiotensin receptors, although their exact role is still unclear. The action of angiotensin II itself is targeted by angiotensin II receptor antagonists, which directly block angiotensin II AT1 receptors.

Angiotensin II is degraded to angiotensin III by angiotensinases that are located in red blood cells and the vascular beds of most tissues. It has a half-life in circulation of around 30 seconds, while in tissue, it may be as long as 15-30 minutes.

Angiotensin III

Asp | Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe

Angiotensin III has 40% of the pressor activity of Angiotensin II, but 100% of the aldosterone-producing activity.

Angiotensin IV

Arg | Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe

Angiotensin IV is a hexapeptide which, like angiotensin III, has some lesser activity.

Effects

See also Renin-angiotensin_system#Effects

Angiotensins II, III & IV have a number of effects throughout the body:

Cardiovascular effects

It is a potent direct vasoconstrictor, constricting arteries and veins and increasing blood pressure.

Angiotensin II has prothrombotic potential through adhesion and aggregation of platelets and production of PAI-1 and PAI-2.[2][3]

When cardiac cell growth is stimulated, a local (autocrine-paracrine) renin-angiotensin system is activated in the cardiac myocte, which stimulates cardiac cell growth through Protein Kinase C. The same system can be activated in smooth muscle cells in conditions of hypertension, atherosclerosis or endothelial damage. Angiotensin II is the most important Gq stimulator of the heart during hypertrophy, compared to endothelin-1 and A1 adrenoreceptors.

Neural effects

Angiotensin II increases thirst sensation (dipsogen) through the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain, decreases the response of the baroreceptor reflex, and increases the desire for salt. It increases secretion of ADH in the posterior pituitary and secretion of ACTH in the anterior pituitary. It also potentiates the release of norepinephrine by direct action on postganglionic sympathetic fibers.

Adrenal effects

Angiotensin II acts on the adrenal cortex, causing it to release aldosterone, a hormone that causes the kidneys to retain sodium and lose potassium. Elevated plasma angiotensin II levels are responsible for the elevated aldosterone levels present during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

Renal effects

Angiotensin II has a direct effect on the proximal tubules to increase Na+ absorption. Although it slightly inhibits glomerular filtration by indirectly (through sympathetic effects) and directly stimulating mesangial cell constriction, its overall effect is to increase the glomerular filtration rate by increasing the renal perfusion pressure via efferent renal arteriole constriction. Angiotensin II causes the release of prostaglandins from the kidneys.

Renal effects of Angiotensin II
Target Action Mechanism[4]
Renal artery &
afferent arterioles
vasoconstriction VDCCs --> Ca2+ influx
efferent arteriole vasoconstriction (probably) activate Angiotensin receptor 1 --> Activation of Gq --> ↑PLC activity --> ↑IP3 and DAG --> activation of IP3 receptor in SR --> ↑intracellular Ca2+
mesangial cells contraction --> ↓filtration area
  • activation of Gq --> ↑PLC activity --> ↑IP3 and DAG --> activation of IP3 receptor in SR --> ↑intracellular Ca2+
  • VDCCs --> Ca2+ influx
Tubuloglomerular feedback Increased sensitivity Responsiveness increase of afferent arteriole to signals from macula densa
medullary blood flow Reduction

See also

References

  1. ^ Physiology at MCG 7/7ch09/7ch09p16
  2. ^ Skurk T, Lee YM,Hauner H. "Angiotensin II and its metabolites stimulate PAI-1 protein release from human adipocytes in primary culture." Hypertension. 2001 May;37(5):1336-40. PMID 11358950
  3. ^ Gesualdo L, et al. "Angiotensin IV stimulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in proximal tubular epithelial cells." Kidney Int. 1999 Aug;56(2):461-70. PMID 10432384
  4. ^ Unless else specified in table, then ref is: Walter F., PhD. Boron. Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 771

Further reading

  • Brenner & Rector's The Kidney, 7th ed., Saunders, 2004.
  • Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 3rd Ed., CV Mosby Company, 1990.
  • Review of Medical Physiology, 20th Ed., William F. Ganong, McGraw-Hill, 2001.
  • Lees KR, MacFadyen RJ, Doig JK, Reid JL (1993). "Role of angiotensin in the extravascular system.". Journal of human hypertension 7 Suppl 2: S7-12. PMID 8230088.
  • Weir MR, Dzau VJ (2000). "The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: a specific target for hypertension management.". Am. J. Hypertens. 12 (12 Pt 3): 205S-213S. PMID 10619573.
  • Berry C, Touyz R, Dominiczak AF, et al. (2002). "Angiotensin receptors: signaling, vascular pathophysiology, and interactions with ceramide.". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 281 (6): H2337-65. PMID 11709400.
  • Sernia C (2002). "A critical appraisal of the intrinsic pancreatic angiotensin-generating system.". JOP 2 (1): 50-5. PMID 11862023.
  • Varagic J, Frohlich ED (2003). "Local cardiac renin-angiotensin system: hypertension and cardiac failure.". J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 34 (11): 1435-42. PMID 12431442.
  • Wolf G (2006). "Role of reactive oxygen species in angiotensin II-mediated renal growth, differentiation, and apoptosis.". Antioxid. Redox Signal. 7 (9-10): 1337-45. doi:10.1089/ars.2005.7.1337. PMID 16115039.
  • Cazaubon S, Deshayes F, Couraud PO, Nahmias C (2006). "[Endothelin-1, angiotensin II and cancer]". Med Sci (Paris) 22 (4): 416-22. PMID 16597412.
  • Ariza AC, Bobadilla NA, Halhali A (2007). "[Endothelin 1 and angiotensin II in preeeclampsia]". Rev. Invest. Clin. 59 (1): 48-56. PMID 17569300.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Angiotensin". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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