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Yolk sac



Yolk sac
Human embryo of 2.6 mm.
Human embryo from thirty-one to thirty-four days
Gray's subject #11 54
Carnegie stage 5b
Days 9
Precursor endoderm
MeSH Yolk+Sac
Dorlands/Elsevier s_01/12716805

The yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 5 weeks gestation.

It is a critical landmark, identifying a true gestation sac.

It is quite echogenic (light) to ultrasound, and reliably seen early.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

In mice

In the mouse, the yolk sac is the first site of blood formation, generating primitive macrophages and erythrocytes.

In humans

The yolk-sac is situated on the ventral aspect of the embryo; it is lined by endoderm, outside of which is a layer of mesoderm.

It is filled with fluid, the vitelline fluid, which possibly may be utilized for the nourishment of the embryo during the earlier stages of its existence.

Blood is conveyed to the wall of the sac by the primitive aorta, and after circulating through a wide-meshed capillary plexus, is returned by the vitelline veins to the tubular heart of the embryo. This constitutes the vitelline circulation, and by means of it nutritive material is absorbed from the yolk-sac and conveyed to the embryo.

At the end of the fourth week the yolk-sac presents the appearance of a small pear-shaped vesicle (umbilical vesicle) opening into the digestive tube by a long narrow tube, the vitelline duct.

The vesicle can be seen in the after-birth as a small, somewhat oval-shaped body whose diameter varies from 1 mm. to 5 mm.; it is situated between the amnion and the chorion and may lie on or at a varying distance from the placenta.

As a rule the duct undergoes complete obliteration during the seventh week, but in about two percent of cases its proximal part persists as a diverticulum from the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum, which is situated about 60cm proximal to the ileocecal valve, and may be attached by a fibrous cord to the abdominal wall at the umbilicus.

Sometimes a narrowing of the lumen of the ileum is seen opposite the site of attachment of the duct.

Histogenesis

The Yolk sac starts forming itself during the second week of the embryonic development, at the same time of the shaping of the amniotic sac. The hypoblast starts proliferating laterally and descending down.

In the meantime the Heuser membrane, located on the opposite pole of the developing vesicle, starts its upward proliferation and meets the ipoblast.

Modifications

  • Primary yolk sac/primitive yolk sac: it is the vesicle constituted in the second week, its floor is represented by the Heuser membrane and its ceiling by the ipoblast. It is also known as the exocoelomic cavity.[1]
  • Secondary yolk sac: this first transformation is determined by the modification of its cover, in the connection zone between the ipoblast and the Heuser membrane. We can observe a structure. The two parts detach and the inferior one, which is smaller, forms a cyst destined to be eliminated. The upper one is now covered only by the ipoblast.
  • The final yolk sac: during the fourth week of development, during which we can see the shaping of the embryonic areas. A little portion of the sac, in the upper part, constitutes the intestinal tube. On the other side, the distal part forms a little vesicle that is what remains of the yolk sac.

Additional images

References

  1. ^ Text for first three lectures. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Yolk_sac". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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