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Systemic inflammatory response syndrome

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
Classification & external resources
ICD-9 995.90

In medicine, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state of the whole body (the "system") without a proven source of infection. It is a serious medical condition.


Definition of SIRS

Criteria for SIRS were agreed in 1992.[1] SIRS can be diagnosed when two or more of the following are present:[2][3][4][5]

  • Heart rate > 90 beats per minute
  • Body temperature < 36 or > 38°C
  • Tachypnea (high respiratory rate) > 20 breaths per minute or, on blood gas, a PaCO2 < 4.3 kPa (32 mm Hg)
  • White blood cell count < 4000 cells/mm³ or > 12000 cells/mm³ (< 4 x 109 or > 12 x 109 cells/L), or the presence of greater than 10% immature neutrophils.

Difference between SIRS and sepsis

SIRS with a suspected or proven infection is called sepsis.

Simply stated:

SIRS + infection = sepsis [2][3]

Complications of SIRS

SIRS can result in the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.
Hypotension related to vessel dilation
Hypovolemic Shock

Causes of SIRS

Relation to cytokine storm

SIRS can be considered to be a subset of cytokine storm, a general term (not commonly used in clinical medicine) for cytokine dysregulation.

See also


  1. ^ (1992) "American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis". Crit. Care Med. 20 (6): 864-74. PMID 1597042.
  2. ^ a b Irwin RS, Cerra FB, Rippe JM. Irwin and Rippe's Intensive Care Medicine. 5th Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Hagerstown, MD. 2003. ISBN 0-7817-1425-7. Publisher's information on the book.
  3. ^ a b Marino PL. The ICU Book. 2nd Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Hagerstown, MD. 1998. ISBN 0-683-05565-8. Publisher's information on the book.
  4. ^ Sharma S, Steven M. Septic Shock., URL: Accessed on Nov 20, 2005.
  5. ^ Tslotou AG, Sakorafas GH, Anagnostopoulos G, Bramis J. Septic shock; current pathogenetic concepts from a clinical perspective. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Mar;11(3):RA76-85. PMID 15735579. Full Text.
  6. ^ Santhanam S, Tolan RW. Sepsis., URL: Accessed on Mar 12, 2006.


  • Intensive Care Medicine by Irwin and Rippe
  • The ICU Book by Marino
  • Cecil Textbook of Medicine
  • The Oxford Textbook of Medicine
  • Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Systemic_inflammatory_response_syndrome". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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