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Leiomyoma



Leiomyoma
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 D21, D25
ICD-9 218
ICD-O: 8890-8894
MeSH D007889

A leiomyoma (plural is 'leiomyomata') is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. They can occur in any organ, but the most common forms occur in the uterus, small bowel and the esophagus.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Etymology

  • Greek:
    • leios = smooth
    • muV = (myo) mouse or muscle
    • oma = tumor
  • Latin:
    • Fibra = fiber

 

Uterine leiomyomata

Main article: Uterine fibroids

Uterine fibroids are leiomyomata of the uterine smooth muscle. As other leiomyomata, they are benign, but may lead to excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), often cause anemia and may lead to infertility. Enucleation is removal of fibroids without removing the uterus (hysterectomy), which is also commonly performed. Laser surgery (called myolysis) is increasingly used, and provides a viable alternative to surgery.

Uterine leiomyomas originate in the myometrium and are classified by location:

  • Submucosal – lie just beneath the endometrium.
  • Intramural – lie within the uterine wall.
  • Subserous – lies at the serosal surface of the uterus or may bulge out from the myometrium and can become pedunculated.

Estrogen and progesterone usually stimulate their growth, and hormone suppression may hence decrease their size.

Esophageal

They are also the most common benign esophageal tumour, though this accounts for less than 1% of esophageal neoplasms. The remainder consists mainly of carcinomas. Although the vast majority of benign esophageal tumors are clinically silent and go undetected, large or strategically located tumors may become symptomatic.[1]

Leiomyoma of Jejunum

Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of small bowel. Approximately 50% of cases are found in the jejunum, followed by the ileum in 31% of cases. Almost one half of all lesions are less than 5 centimeters.[2]

Treatment

Diagnosis depends on position of the myomas. Traditional Transabdominal or Transvaginal ultrasonogram can detect large submucosal and transmural myomas. For submucosal myomas saline infusion sonography is the best.

Medical Treatment:

GnRH analogues for 3-6 months are used to reduce the size of the myomas. It usually reduce the size by 60% to 70%. But once the medication is stopped the myomas will grow back.

Surgical Treatment:

Myomectomy is a choice to remove myomas. It is usually done when the client wants to preserve their fertility.

Total Abdominal or Vaginal hysterectomy with Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy is the definitive treatment.

Outcomes

References

  1. ^ James C. Chou, MD & Frank G. Gress, MD. Benign Esophageal Tumors. Esophageal Cancer Overview (Cancer of the Esophagus). Armenian Health Network, Health.am. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  2. ^ By Michael P. Buetow, M.D.. Leiomyoma of Jejunum. Applied Radiology Online. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  • Merck Manual: Uterine fibroids
  • Esophageal Leiomyoma
  • Atlas of Pathology uterine leimyoma

See also

  • myosarcoma
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Leiomyoma". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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