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Additional recommended knowledge
Menstruation occurs typically monthly, lasts 3-7 days, and involves up to 80 ml blood. Bleeding in excess of this norm in a nonpregnant woman constitutes gynecologic hemorrhage. In addition, early pregnancy bleeding has sometimes been included as gynecologic hemorrhage, namely bleeding from a miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy, while it actually represents obstetrical bleeding. However, from a practical view, early pregnancy bleeding is usually handled like a gynecological hemorrhage.
Causes of gynecologic bleeding include:
Anovulation is a common cause of gynecological hemorrhage. Under the influence of estrogen the endometrium (uterine lining) is stimulated and eventually such lining will be shed off (estrogen breakthrough bleeding). The anovulation chapter discusses its multiple possible causes. longstanding anovulation can also lead to endometrial hyperplasia and facilitate the development of endometrial cancer.
Women with a bleeding disorder may be prone to more excessive bleeding. A hematologic work-up should discover the cause.
A history will establish if the condition is acute or chronic, and if external circumstances are involved. A gynecologic examination is usually complemented by a gynecologic ultrasonography. A blood count determines the degree of anemia and may point out bleeding problems. The pregnancy test is important, particularly as bleeding in early pregnancy presents as gynecological hemorrhage and ectopic pregnancy can be fatal.
Generally gynecologic hemorrhage does not arise out of nowhere. Regular gynecologic examinations, cancer screening, and contraceptive measures go a long way in preventing and forestalling unsuspected acute bleeding events.
Gynecologic hemorrhage needs to be evaluated as soon as possible by a physician. The amount and duration of bleeding will dictate whether a bleeding event is an emergency event.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Gynecologic_hemorrhage". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|