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The epiglottis is a lid-like flap of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucus membrane, attached to the root of the tongue. It projects obliquely upwards behind the tongue and the hyoid bone.
Additional recommended knowledge
Anatomy and function
It is normally pointed upward, but during swallowing, elevation of the hyoid bone draws the larynx upward; as a result, the epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position. In this manner it prevents food from going into the trachea and instead directs it to the esophagus, which is more posterior.
The epiglottis is one of three large cartilaginous structures that make up the larynx (voice box).
The glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) sends fibers to the upper epiglottis that contribute to the afferent limb of the gag reflex. The superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X) sends fibers to the lower epiglottis that contribute to the afferent limb of the cough reflex. 
Infection of the epiglottis
In children, the epiglottis will occasionally become infected with Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. Although easily treated, this condition is a medical emergency because without treatment the epiglottis may swell and block the trachea, causing massive inflammation. This condition has become rare in countries where vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae (HIB) is administered.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Epiglottis". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|