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The primary dissociatives are similar in action to phencyclidine (PCP), and include ketamine and dextromethorphan (DXM). Also included are nitrous oxide (laughing gas), salvia divinorum, and muscimol from the amanita muscaria (fly agaric) mushroom.
Many dissociatives also have central nervous system depressant effects, thereby carrying similar risks with opioids that slow breathing and lower the heart rate to levels which can result in death, when used in very high doses.
Additional recommended knowledge
Pharmacological classes of dissociatives, and their general subjective effects
Entries marked with a # are naturally occurring.
Uncompetitive channel blockers include:
Non-competitive antagonists include:
Drugs that act at the glycine binding site include 7-chlorokynurenate.
κ-opioid receptor agonists
σ-opioid receptor agonists
Amanita muscaria constituents
These four groups of dissociatives have slightly different effects but also share similarities separating them from other classes of hallucinogens. They are markedly different from psychedelics such as LSD, where alert and fully conscious users experience cognitive distortion while simultaneously interacting with the "real world". Hallucinations from these dissociatives are generally only experienced in dark rooms or with eyes closed, unless at very high doses above what is normally consumed recreationally. Nitrous oxide has very different effects however, and even at low doses includes auditory distortions. Unlike with many other psychedelic chemicals, salvia users are generally not ambulatory and the experience is frequently dissociative. Often a very brief trance is entered, where the user experiences an intense and very realistic dream state. On the other hand, the effect of salvia on emotion has been reported to be less marked than that of true psychedelics.
Although muscimol does not usually cause normal hallucinations, it has a tendency to put the user to sleep, during which the user is able to have very vivid dreams with good dream recall.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Dissociative_drug". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|