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Depersonalization



Depersonalization is an alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, one's mental processes or body.[1] It can be considered desirable, such as in the use of recreational drugs, but it usually refers to the severe form found in anxiety and, in the most intense case, panic attacks. A sufferer feels that he or she has changed and the world has become less real, vague, dreamlike, or lacking in significance. It can sometimes be a rather disturbing experience, since many feel that indeed, they are living in a "dream."

Chronic depersonalization refers to depersonalization disorder, which is classified by the DSM-IV as a dissociative disorder. Derealization is a similar term to depersonalization, and the two are often used interchangeably. However, more specifically, derealization is the feeling that "nothing is real," while depersonalization is the feeling that one is "detached" from one's body or world. Though these feelings can happen to anyone, they are most prominent in anxiety disorders, clinical depression, bipolar disorder, sleep deprivation, and some types of epilepsy.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Description

Individuals who experience depersonalization feel divorced from both the world and from their own identity and physicality.[2] Often a person who has experienced depersonalization claims that life "feels like a movie" or things seem unreal or hazy. Also a recognition of self breaks down (hence the name). DP can result in very high anxiety levels, which further increase these perceptions.[3]

One way to describe the physical manifestation of the feeling is to compare it to a film technique called the vertigo shot or dolly zoom. In this technique, the subject of the picture stays fixed on the shot while all the surrounding background is pulled away - providing a sense of vertigo or detachment. People may perceive this feeling in a cyclical manner, where the feeling is experienced back-to-back in succession.

Sometimes the physical manifestation is more like a strobe light of the senses. Information is processed at a much more staggered rate and therefore the subject feels as though his or her senses are being distorted and fragmented.

Causes

Depersonalization is a side effect of dissociatives and hallucinogens, as well as common drugs such as caffeine,[4] alcohol,[5] and minocycline.[6] It is a classic withdrawal symptom from many drugs.[7][8][9][10]

Depersonalization can also accompany sleep deprivation, stress and anxiety.

A study of undergraduate students found individuals high on the depersonalization/derealization subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale exhibited more pronounced cortisol response. Individuals high on the absorption subscale, which measures experiences of concentration to the exclusion of awareness of other events going on around them, showed weaker cortisol responses.[11]

Treatment

Treatment is dependent on the underlying cause.

If depersonalization is a symptom of neurological disease, then diagnosis and treatment of the specific disease is the first approach. Depersonalization can be a cognitive symptom of such diseases as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), neuroborreliosis (Lyme Disease) or any other neurological disease affecting the brain.

If depersonalization is a psychological symptom then treatment may be dependent on the diagnosis. Depersonalization is often a symptom of borderline personality disorder, which can be treated in the long term with proper psychotherapy and psychopharmacology.[1]

Treatment of chronic depersonalization is considered in depersonalization disorder.

See also

References

  1. ^ American Psychiatric Association (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision). American Psychiatric Association. ISBN 0890420246.
  2. ^ Depersonalization Disorder (html). Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  3. ^ Daniel. Depersonalization disorder: A feeling of being 'outside' your body (html). Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  4. ^ Stein, M. B. (July 1989). "Depersonalization Disorder: Effects of Caffeine and Response to Pharmacotherapy". Biological Psychiatry 26 (3): 315-20.
  5. ^ Raimo EB, Roemer RA, Moster M, Shan Y. : Alcohol-induced depersonalization, Biol Psychiatry. JUN 1999 Raimo, E. B.; R. A. Roemer, M. Moster and Y. Shan (June 1999). "Alchol-Induced Depersonalization". Biological Psychiatry.
  6. ^ Cohen, P. R. (2004). "Medication-associated depersonalization symptoms: report of transient depersonalization symptoms induced by minocycline". Southern Medical Journal 97 (1): 70-73. PMID 14746427.
  7. ^ Marriott, S.; P. Tyrer (1993). "Benzodiazepine dependence: avoidance and withdrawal". Drug Safety 9 (2): 93-103. PMID 8104417.
  8. ^ Shufman, E.; A. Lerner and E. Witztum (2005). "[Depersonalization after withdrawal from cannabis usage]" (in Hebrew). Harefuah 144 (4): 249-51 and 303. PMID 15889607.
  9. ^ Djenderedjian, A.; R. Tashjian (1982). "Agoraphobia following amphetamine withdrawal". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 43 (6): 248-49. PMID 7085580.
  10. ^ Mourad, I.; M. Lejoyeux and J. Adès (1998). "[Prospective evaluation of antidepressant discontinuation]" (in French). L'Encéphale 24 (3): 215-22. PMID 9696914.
  11. ^ Giesbrecht, T.; T. Smeets, H. Merckelbac and M. Jelicic (2007). "Depersonalization experiences in undergraduates are related to heightened stress cortisol responses". J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 195 (4): 282-87. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000253822.60618.60. PMID 17435477.
  • Lt. Col. Dave Grossman, in his book On Killing, suggests that military training artificially creates depersonalization in soldiers, suppressing empathy and making it easier for them to kill other human beings.
  • Existentialists use the term in a different context. The treatment of individuals by other people as if they were objects, or without regard to their feelings, has been termed depersonalization. Determinism has been accused of this. See also objectification.
  • R. D. Laing used depersonalization to mean a fear of the loss of autonomy in interpersonal relationships by the ontologically insecure.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Depersonalization". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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