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Cervical polyp



Cervical polyp
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 N84.1
ICD-9 219
DiseasesDB 2314
MedlinePlus 001494

A cervical polyp is a common benign polyp or tumour on the surface of the cervical canal.[1] They can cause irregular menstrual bleeding but often show no symptoms. Treatment consists of simple removal of the polyp and prognosis is generally good. About 1% of cervical polyps will show neoplastic change which may lead to cancer. They are most common in post-menstrual, pre-menopausal women who have given birth.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Cause

The cause of cervical polyps is uncertain, but they are often associated with inflammation of the cervix.[2] They may also occur as a result of raised levels of oestrogen or clogged cervical blood vessels.[3]

Symptoms

Cervical polyps often show no symptoms. Where there are symptoms, they include intermenstrual bleeding, abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal women, bleeding after sex and thick white vaginal discharge (leukorrhoea).[3][4][5][6]

Diagnosis

Cervical polyps can be seen during a pelvic examination as red or purple projections from the cervical canal.[3] Diagnosis can be confirmed by a cervical biopsy which will reveal the nature of the cells present.[3]

Treatment

Cervical polyps can be removed using ring forceps.[7] They can also be removed by tying surgical string around the polyp and cutting it off.[3] The remaining base of the polyp can then be removed using a laser or by cauterisation.[3] If the polyp is infected, an antibiotic may be prescribed.[3]

Prognosis

99% of cervical polyps will remain benign and 1% will at some point show neoplastic change.[8] Cervical polyps are unlikely to regrow.[3]

Risk factors and epidemiology

Cervical polyps are most common in women who have had children, rare in pre-menstrual women and uncommon in post-menopausal women.[6]

Structure

Cervical polyps are finger like growths, generally less than 1 cm in diameter.[3][4] They may be attached to the cervix by a stalk (pedunculated) and occasionally prolapse into the vagina where they can be mistaken for endometrial polyps or submucosal fibroids.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ Boon, Mathilde E.; Albert J. H. Suurmeijer (1996). The Pap Smear. Taylor & Francis, 87. ISBN 3718658577. 
  2. ^ Cervical Polyps (PDF). Doncaster and Bassetlaw Hospitals (NHS). Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Smith, Melanie N. (2006-05-10). Cervical polyps. MEDLINE. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  4. ^ a b c Bates, Jane (1997). Practical Gynaecological Ultrasound. Cambridge University Press, 77. ISBN 1900151510. 
  5. ^ Papadakis, Maxine A.; Stephen J. McPhee, Roni F. Zeiger (2005). Current Consult Medicine 2006. McGraw-Hill Professional, 60. ISBN 0071458921. 
  6. ^ a b Bosze, Peter; David M. Luesley (2004). Eagc Course Book on Colposcopy. Informa Health Care, 66. ISBN 9630073560. 
  7. ^ Moore, Anne (2001-09-20). How Should I Treat Postcoital Bleeding in a Premenopausal Patient?. Medscape.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
  8. ^ Tillman, Elizabeth, , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, . Retrieved on 2007-10-21
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Cervical_polyp". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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