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Additional recommended knowledge
Prolapse literally means "To fall out of place." In medicine, prolapse is a condition where organs, such as the uterus, fall down or slip out of place. It is used for organs protruding through the vagina, rectum, or for the misalignment of the valves of the heart. A spinal disc herniation is also sometimes called disc prolapse.
Rectal prolapse is a condition in which part of the wall or the entire wall of the rectum falls out of place. In some cases, the rectum may stick out of the body (protrusion).
There are three types of rectal prolapse.
There are multiple causes of rectal prolapse. A life long habit of straining to have bowel movements, stresses involved in childbirth, weakening of the anal sphincter muscle, and/or weakening of the ligaments that support the rectum are frequent causes. Neurological problems, such as spinal cord transaction or a spinal cord disease, can also lead to prolapse. In rare cases there may be a genetic predisposition. In most cases, though, no single cause can be identified.
Symptoms of a rectal prolapse may be:
Other accompanying symptoms may be:
Treatment should be aimed at avoiding constipation and avoiding straining to have a bowel movement. A diet rich in fiber and drinking 6 to 8 glasses of decaffeinated fluids every day will assist in keeping stools soft. In some cases physical therapy with biofeedback can assist with avoiding straining. If anal sphincter muscles are weak, Kegels are recommended. Physical therapy can also help strengthen weakened ligaments and anal sphincter muscles.
Two types of surgery are used to treat a complete prolapse. A surgeon may operate through the belly to secure part of the large intestine or rectum to the inside the abdominal cavity (rectopexy). Sometimes the surgeon removes the affected part of the intestine.
Surgery also can be done through the area between the genitals and the anus (perineum) to remove the prolapsing tissue
Surgery is most often successful for people who still have some control over their bowel movements. If the anal sphincter is damaged, surgery may correct the prolapse but not be able to completely correct fecal incontinence (lack of control of bowel movements). In some cases, fecal incontinence improves after prolapse surgery and in some cases fecal incontinence worsens.
Oviduct prolapse is an often fatal condition in birds. When an egg is laid, the vagina everts through the cloaca to deliver the egg. Large eggs and avian obesity are contributors to this condition. Immediate veterinary assistance is paramount to the survival of a bird with prolapse. Even with immediate medical intervention the chances for survival are usually uncertain. Untreated birds will begin to tear at the injury site. Other flockmates will begin to cannibalise the prolapse area. This behaviour is commonly known as pickout.
Uterine prolapse in cattle, particularly dairy cattle, generally occurs in the first 12 hours post-calving. Frequent causes are hypocalcemia combined with irritation of the birth canal, causing straining. Replacement of the organ, which can be from softball-sized to the entire uterus hanging down below the hocks, is done with the cow in sternal recumbancy, an epidural injection, and hindlimbs 'frogged' rearwards to allow the pelvis to tip forward, easing replacement. Careful washing and cleaning prior to replacement is important as is ensuring that the horns are completely everted once inside the cow. Often a Buhner suture is placed in the vulva to prevent subsequent re-prolapse.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Prolapse". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|